Topographical anatomy of the ventral neck and thoracic cavity

  1. Where does the trachea extend to and from?
    From the cricoid cartilage to the lungs
  2. The cervical part of the trachea lies approximately dorsal/ventral and lateral/medial?
    Ventral and medial
  3. Where does the trachea split to form right at left principal bronchi?
    Above the base of the heart
  4. Where do the bronchi enter the lungs?
    At the hilus
  5. What are the three layers of the wall of the trachea?
    Mucosa, fibro-cartilaginous layer, adventitia/serosa
  6. What type of epithelium lines the trachea?
    Respiratory or psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  7. True or false: the cartilaginous rings surrounding the trachea are complete?
    False - the rings fail to meet dorsally
  8. What occupies the space in the incomplete tracheal cartilage rings?
    Tracheal muscle
  9. What is the function of the cartilage rings in the trachea?
    They keep the airways open during inspiration and expiration
  10. What type of cartilage makes up the rings in the trachea?
    Hyaline cartilage
  11. Which glands are associated with the cervical trachea?
    Thyroid and parathyroid glands
  12. What structures are present in the carotid sheath?
    Common carotid artery, vagosympathetic trunk and internal jugular vein
  13. Which nerve runs alongside but is not a part of the carotid sheath?
    The recurrent laryngeal nerve
  14. What is the blood supply to the trachea?
    Common carotid artery, broncheoesophageal artery and satellite veins
  15. What is the nerve supply to the trachea?
    Recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, sympathetic trunk and middle cervical ganglion
  16. How can tracheal collapse be treated?
    Prosthetics can be put in to try and keep the trachea from collapsing
  17. What are the cranial, dorsal, lateral, ventral and caudal boundaries of the thoracic cavity?
    • Cranial - the thoracic inlet
    • Dorsal - the thoracic vertebrae, parts of the ribs and longus coli muscle
    • Lateral - ribs, costal cartilages and intercostal muscles
    • Ventral - sternum and transverse thoracis muscle
    • Caudal - diaphragm
  18. How does the shape of the thoracic cavity differ between cats and dogs?
    The thoracic cavity in the cat is much more elongated than dogs
  19. In the standing dog, what is a good landmark for beginning your heart auscultation?
    The olecranon
  20. Which is normally a passive process: inspiration or expiration?
  21. Which structures are involved in inspiration?
    The diaphragm moves caudally to increase the volume of air drawn in by the lungs.  This action is supplemented by the intercostal muscles.
  22. What is the difference between visceral and parietal pleura of the lungs?
    Visceral adheres to the surface of the lung whereas parietal adheres to the wall of the thorax
  23. What is the space in between the visceral layers called?
    The pleural cavity
  24. What structure separates the thoracic cavity into right and left halves?
    The mediastinum
  25. Which lung is generally larger?
    The right lung
  26. Which organs and structures are located within the mediastinum?
    The heart, part of the trachea, the oesophagus, the thymus, the great vessels and nerves, the thoracic duct and lymph nodes
  27. Which organs and structures lie outwith the mediastinum?
    The lungs, the caudal vena cava, right phrenic nerve (caudal to the heart)
Card Set
Topographical anatomy of the ventral neck and thoracic cavity
Vet Med - Module 9