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  1. How many years ago did single-celled eukaryotes arise?
    2 billion years ago
  2. How many years ago did multicellular eukaryotes arise?
    1.5 billion years ago
  3. In what era did animals colonize land?
    Paleozoic Era
  4. In what era did prokaryotes arise?
    Archaean Era
  5. Protists were defined as the kingdom of_______
    Primitive forms
  6. First eukaryotes were probably _____
  7. What was Ernest Haeckel known for?
    Introduced terms protist phylogeny
  8. What did Ernest Haeckel classify organisms based on?
    Their morphological characteristics
  9. Who came up with the first tree of life?
    Darwin, “I think”
  10. Definition of a protist
    A eukaryote that is neither a fungus, plant or animal
  11. 4 properties of protists
    • 1. mostly unicellular
    • 2. mostly microscopic
    • 3. aquatic
    • 4. nutritionally diverse
  12. Chemoheterotrophs
    ingest their food
  13. Photoautotrophs
    perform photosynthesis to make their food
  14. Mixotrophs
    combination of performing making their own food and ingesting it
  15. Properties of protist example: stentor (ciliate)
    • 1. unicellular
    • 2. microscopic
    • 3. freshwater
    • 4. chemoheterotroph
  16. Properties of protist example: red alga
    • 1. multicellular
    • 2. macroscopic
    • 3. marine
    • 4. photoautotroph
  17. What type of protists are algae? How do they get their food?
    Plant-like protists, photosynthetic
  18. What type of protists are protozoa? How do they get their food?
    Animal-like protists, ingestive
  19. What are the four supergroups of eukaryotes?
    • 1. Unikonta
    • 2. Archaeplastid
    • 3. SAR-clade
    • 4. Excavata
  20. Protists are no longer viewed as a ________
  21. What is an endosymbiont?
    a cell that lives within a host cell
  22. Symbiosis=?
    Living Together
  23. Mitochondria and plastids were formerly _________
    small prokaryotes living within larger host cells
  24. Mutualism
    both organisms benefit
  25. Commensalism
    one organism benefits, the other is unaffected
  26. Parasitism
    one organism benefits at the expense of the host
  27. How to tell which is host and which is symbiont?
    • host= larger organism
    • symbiont= smaller organism
  28. Who suffers in parasitism?
    the host cell
  29. How did modern day eukaryotes acquire mitochondrion?
    Larger eukaryotic cell engulfed aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote and evolved to have mitochondrion in almost every eukaryotic organism
  30. Second type of endosymbiosis led to___________
    chloroplasts and plastids
  31. Acquisition of mitochondrion happened in ________, whereas acquisition of plastids/chloroplasts happened in _________
    every eukaryotic; only in a limited number of eukaryotes
  32. What is a photosynthetic prokaryote?
    a cyanobacterium
  33. Plastids refer to?
    chloroplasts and related organelles
  34. Primary endosymbiosis?
    evolution of red and green algae
  35. Pigments are _______
    substances that absorb light
  36. Chlorophyll a
    main photosynthetic pigment
  37. Pigment in green algae
    chlorophyll b
  38. Pigment in red algae/cyanobacteria
    chlorophyll d
  39. Pigment in red algae
  40. Pigment in cyanobacteria
  41. What do accessory pigments do?
    broaden the spectrum used for photosynthesis
  42. Red algae are usually found where?
    deep within the ocean, which is why they developed ability to absorb blue light
  43. What is the porphyrin ring?
    structure in chlorophyll that absorbs light
  44. What does the hydrocarbon tail in chlorophyll do?
    zanchors the molecule into membrane of thylakoid
  45. CH(?) in chlorophyll a vs. CH(?) in chlorophyll b
    CH3 vs. CHO
  46. Differences in chlorophyll a/b/c/d are made by
    one or two substitutions in porphyrin ring
  47. What happens when a chlorophyll molecule is excited?
    electron goes into excited state, while it falls back down heat and fluorescence is released
Card Set
Unit 1, Lecture 4
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