1. What are somatic cells?
    • any type of cell other than a reproductive cell
    • contain a full set of chromosomes
  2. number of chromosomes in somatic cells:
  3. What are gametes?
    • sex cells
    • have half the chromosomes of somatic cells
  4. number of chromosomes in gametes:
  5. the division process that produces haploid cells:
  6. What are spermatogonia?
    stem cells that have the potential to produce sperm
  7. meiosis in spermatogenesis produces:
    haploid pre-spermatozoa called spermatids
  8. spermiogenesis produces:
    maturation of spermatids to produce mature sperm
  9. What is the zona pellucida?
    • membrane that surrounds the oocyte and function to bind the sperm to the oocyte via the acrosome
    • allows the release of genetic material into the egg for fertilization, which creates the zygote
  10. mitosis:
    process of cell duplication where one cell creates two genetically identical daughter cells
  11. meiosis:
    division of germ cells that creates four gametes, each having half the number of chromosomes of the original cell
  12. Where does the process of sperm formation occur?
    seminiferous tubules
  13. How many chromosomes do horses have?
  14. What forms the base layers of the germinal epithelium?
    over one billion spermatagonia in the testicles
  15. What are type A cells?
    spermatagonia that undergo mitotic division
  16. What are type B cells?
    daughter cells that replenish the spermatagonia
  17. Where is spermiogenesis completed?
  18. What happens during spermiogenesis?
    • all non-essential components of spermatids are lost
    • nucleus of the cell becomes the head
    • acrosome develops
  19. What is found in the acrosome?
    digestive enzymes that allow the sperm to digest and penetrate the zona pellucida around the oocyte
  20. What is the function of Leydig cells?
    produce testosterone and estrogen
  21. What releases GnRH?
  22. process of spermatogenesis:
    • meiosis occurs and produces spermatids
    • then spermiogenesis occurs that turns spermatids into mature sperm
  23. What hormone do Leydig cells respond to?
  24. What is the function of sertoli cells?
    act as phagocytes and engulf & digest cellular debris
  25. sertoli cells are also known as:
    nurse cells
  26. What hormone do sertoli cells respond to?
  27. Leydig cells are also known as:
    interstitium cells
  28. What's an example of a GnRH antagonist?
    • regimate
    • makes stallions less sexually aggressive
  29. What does Prolactin do?
    increases the response of leydig cells to LH and also increases testosterone
  30. Where are Leydig cells found?
    in the testes
  31. Where are sertoli cells found?
    seminiferous tubules
Card Set
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