immuno 002 innate immunity part 2 (inflammation interferons complement proteins sepsis) #05

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  1. what are acute phase proteins?
    they are proteins that are synthesized by the liver and released into the plasma of the blood in response to inflammation.
  2. true or false? complement can only be activated by the adaptive immune system
    false. it doesn't have to be activated by the adaptive immune system
  3. describe briefly what complement proteins are and where they are found
    complement proteins are a system of small proteins found in the blood
  4. when there is no immune response, what happens to the complement proteins?
    they circulate as inactive precursors
  5. right after complement is activated, what steps are taken to mount the complement system attack?
    infection triggers complement activation, which proceeds by a series, or cascade, of enzymatic reactions involving proteases, in which each protease cleaves and activates the next enzyme in the pathway
  6. what is the most important component of the complement system?
    complement component 3 (C3)
  7. why is the complement system named as it is?
    it was discovered as components of plasma that augment the opsonization of bacteria by antibodies and allows antibodies to kill some bacteria. This activity was said to complement the antibacterial activity of the antibody, hence the name
  8. what does the C3b fragment of C3 do?
    some of the C3b fragments become covalently bound to the pathogen's surface. This attachment of the C3b to pathogen surfaces is the essential function of the complement system; it is called complement fixation because C3b becomes firmly fixed to pathogen
  9. what does the C3a fragment do?
    the soluble C3a fragment also contribtes to the body's defenses by acting as a chemoattractant to recruit effector cells, including phagocytes, from the blood to the site of infection
  10. what happens to complement component 3 (C3) when the complement system is activated?
    it gets cleaved by a protease to C3a and C3b
  11. what are the three functions that complement has?
    1. recruitment of inflammatory cells

    2. Opsonization of pathogens, facilitating uptake and killing by phagocytes

    3. perforation of pathogen cell membranes
  12. true or false? C-reactive protein is a part of the complement system
    false, it is a part of the acute phase reactants
  13. what are the three pathways by which complement is activated?
    1. alternative pathway

    2. lectin pathway

    3. classical pathway
  14. describe the alternative pathway
    this pathway works at the start of infection. it doesn't require activation by adaptive immune system. It uses pathogen surface to create local environment conducive to complement activation
  15. what are anaphylatoxins?
    small complement fragments (C3a, C5a, etc) released during complement activation induce local inflammation
  16. what percentage f serum proteins are protease inhibitors?
    about 10%
  17. why are protease inhibitors important?
    colonization of human tissues by pathogens is dependent on pathogen's proteases that degrade human tissues
  18. what are the two classes of protease inhibitors?
    serpins and α-macroglobulins
  19. what are cytokines?
    small secreted proteins, which regulate behavior of other cells; they mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, cell growth and differentiation, and hematopoiesis
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immuno 002 innate immunity part 2 (inflammation interferons complement proteins sepsis) #05
immuno 002 innate immunity part 2 (inflammation, interferons, complement proteins, sepsis) #05
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