organic chemistry aromatic compounds

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  1. benzene and its derivatives belong to a class of compounds called?
    arenes (aromatic hydrocarbons)
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    • ortho-Xylene
    • (1,2-dimethylbenzene)
  5. aromatic
    a compound containing a planar ring of continuously overlapping p orbitals with 4n+2 electrons
  6. nomenclature: monosubsitiuted derivatives of benzene
    • 1. are names systematically using the benzene ring as the parent and listing the substituent as a prefix
    • 2. some have common names that are accepted by IUPAC
    • 3.if the substituent is larger than the benzene ring (i.e. if the the substituent had  more than 6 carbons), then the  benzene ring is treated as a substituent and is called a phenyl group.
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    benzoic acid
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  16. phenyl group
    a C6H5 group
  17. nomenclature : disubstituted  derivatives of benzene
    -dimethyl derivatives  of benzene are called xylene and there are 3  constitutionally isomeric xylenes

    • - these isomers differ from each other in the relative positions of the methyl groups and can be named in two way
    • 1. using the descriptors ortho, meta, para
    • 2. using locants (i.e., 1,3 is the same as meta)
    • both methods can be used when the parent is a common name
  18. ortho
    on an aromatic ring , the C2 posistion
  19. meta
    on an aromatic ring, the C3 position
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    • meta-xylene
    • (1,3-dimethylbenzene)
  21. para
    on an aromatic ring, the C4 position.
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    • para -xylene
    • (1,4-dimethylbenzene)
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  24. nomenclature: polysubstitued  derivatives of benzene
    - the descriptor ortho, meta and para cannot be used when naming an aromatic ring bearing 3 or more substituents . in this case locants are  required. that is, each substituent is designated with a number to indicate its location on the ring.

    • - when naming a ploysubstituted benzene ring, we follow the same 4-step process used for naming alkanes, alkenes alkynes and alcohols.
    • 1.identify and name the parent
    • 2. identify and name the substituents
    • 3. assign a locant to each substituent
    • 4. arrange the substituents alphabetically

    -when identifying the parent , it is acceptable to choose a common name.
  25. Huckel's Rule
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organic chemistry aromatic compounds
chapter 18 aromatic compounds
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