Psych Chapter 5

  1. How do we define consciousness?
    awareness of self, surroundings, feelings, thoughts, and consciousness
  2. Levels of consciousness
    conscious level: level at which mental activities that people are normally aware of occur

    nonconscious: level of mental activity that is inaccessible to conscious awareness (ex: BP)

    preconscious: contains everything that can easily be brought into consciousness

    unconscious/ subconscious level: mental activities taht can alter thoguhts, feeligns, and actions but are more difficult to bring into awareness
  3. Examples of conscious
    thoughts and perceptions
  4. Example of preconscious
    memories and stored knowledge
  5. Unconscious
    • fears
    • violent motives
    • sex 
    • etc
  6. Examples of nonconscious
    physiological activities
  7. EEG scans
    brain wave activity

    In a night's sleep, you go through four or five cycles of 90 minute sleep

    each stage has its own rhythm and corresponding changes in brain activity and behavior
  8. As you close your eyes and begin to relax, you move from __ to __
    normal wakefulness (beta waves) to drowsy relaxation (alpha waves)
  9. Beta wave
    if i'm awake, I'm alert and okay
  10. Alpha waves
    if i start to feel drowsy
  11. Early stages of sleep

    During this presleep period, one may experience __, which is __.
    hypnagogic state

    characterized by feelings of floating, weightlessness, visual images, jerky movements and corresponding feeling of slipping or falling (presleep/ hallucinate)
  12. Statge 1 and two of sleep
    • lower breathing
    • lower HR

    • Stage one: it starts to drop
    • Stage two: it gets lower
  13. Stages three and four
    even deeper and are marked by the appearance of slow, high-amplitude delta waves

    It is very hard to awaken someone in this stage even if you shout at or shake the person

    Stage 4 sleep is the time when hildren often times wet the bed and sleepwalk
  14. REM
    • dream state
    • paralyzed (protective so you don't act out your dreams)
  15. What is the order of the sleep cycle chart?
    1, 2, 3, 4 and then 4, 3, 2, 1
  16. REM sleep
    occurs at the end of the first cycle recorded as a parttern of small-amplitude, fast wave activity

    breathing and pulse rate become fast and irregular

    genitals aroused

    muscles deeply relaxed and unresponsive; person paralyzed

    rapid eye movement
  17. Who sleeps the most? least? 
    Who has the most REM? least?
    babies sleep the most; oldies least

    babies get REM; oldies dont
  18. What age causes an increase in REM hours?

    REM sleep is deeply connected with what?
    14-30 year olds because of puberty

    development and accompanies regions of most growth
  19. REM sleep is most frequent during the __.
    second half of the night
  20. Three major theories of dreams
    1) Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytic

    2) biological

    3) cognitive
  21. 1) Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytic

    • dreams are road to unconscious
    • we dream to fulfill our wishes; things we can't act on in real life

    Manifest: what you actuallya re dreaming

    Latent: analyzing
  22. 2) Biological view
    activation-synthesis hypothesis: dreams are neuron's meaningless byproducts
  23. 3) Cognitive View
    - fundamental process: needed for survival; mental house cleaning (brain organizing day's material)

    Problem solving theory: dreams give people a chance to review and address problems from the day; incubation period; "sleep on it"
  24. insomnia
    inability to sleep or stay asleep
  25. sleep apea
    interrupted sleep due to an individual who has stopped breathing

    problem because: your brain loses O2, development, disrupting cycles (don't get through cycle)
  26. Narcolepsy
    suddenly falling into REM sleep
  27. SIDS
    sudden infant death syndrome

    • babies need to be on back to sleep
    • back to sleep campaigns
    • accidental suffocation
    • can be genetic if brain tells body to stop breathing

    risky up until about four months
  28. REM behavior disorder
    acting out your dreams
  29. types of drugs
    stimulant: anything that increases NS activity (ex: caffeine, etc.)

    depressant: anything that decreases NS activity (ex: alcohol)

    opiate: anything that acts as a pan killer (hit endorphins) ex: heroine

    hallucinogen: LSD, psychadelics; anythign that gives you an out of body experience
  30. psychoactive drugs
    ANYTHING you put into your body that changes conscious awareness, mood, or perception
  31. substance abuse
    the pattern of use that causes serious social, legal, or interpersonal problems for the user
  32. withdrawal
    symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of a habit-forming substance; causes discomfort, distress, crvings, etc.
  33. tolerance
    a condition in which increasingly higher drug doses are needed to produce the same effect

    cross tolerance: use of one drug incereases the tolerance for another
  34. Physiological dependence
    you need it function mentally and feel good; use the drug to get a sense of well being
  35. physical dependence
    aka: addiction

    development of physical need for drug; body processes have been modified by repeated use of drug that contninued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms
Card Set
Psych Chapter 5
Test One