How do we define consciousness?
awareness of self, surroundings, feelings, thoughts, and consciousness
Levels of consciousness
conscious level: level at which mental activities that people are normally aware of occur
nonconscious: level of mental activity that is inaccessible to conscious awareness (ex: BP)
preconscious: contains everything that can easily be brought into consciousness
unconscious/ subconscious level: mental activities taht can alter thoguhts, feeligns, and actions but are more difficult to bring into awareness
Examples of conscious
thoughts and perceptions
Example of preconscious
memories and stored knowledge
- violent motives
Examples of nonconscious
brain wave activity
In a night's sleep, you go through four or five cycles of 90 minute sleep
each stage has its own rhythm and corresponding changes in brain activity and behavior
As you close your eyes and begin to relax, you move from __ to __
normal wakefulness (beta waves) to drowsy relaxation (alpha waves)
if i'm awake, I'm alert and okay
if i start to feel drowsy
Early stages of sleep
During this presleep period, one may experience __, which is __.
characterized by feelings of floating, weightlessness, visual images, jerky movements and corresponding feeling of slipping or falling (presleep/ hallucinate)
Statge 1 and two of sleep
- Stage one: it starts to drop
- Stage two: it gets lower
Stages three and four
even deeper and are marked by the appearance of slow, high-amplitude delta waves
It is very hard to awaken someone in this stage even if you shout at or shake the person
Stage 4 sleep is the time when hildren often times wet the bed and sleepwalk
- dream state
- paralyzed (protective so you don't act out your dreams)
What is the order of the sleep cycle chart?
1, 2, 3, 4 and then 4, 3, 2, 1
occurs at the end of the first cycle recorded as a parttern of small-amplitude, fast wave activity
breathing and pulse rate become fast and irregular
muscles deeply relaxed and unresponsive; person paralyzed
rapid eye movement
Who sleeps the most? least?
Who has the most REM? least?
babies sleep the most; oldies least
babies get REM; oldies dont
What age causes an increase in REM hours?
REM sleep is deeply connected with what?
14-30 year olds because of puberty
development and accompanies regions of most growth
REM sleep is most frequent during the __.
second half of the night
Three major theories of dreams
1) Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytic
1) Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytic
- dreams are road to unconscious
- we dream to fulfill our wishes; things we can't act on in real life
Manifest: what you actuallya re dreaming
2) Biological view
activation-synthesis hypothesis: dreams are neuron's meaningless byproducts
3) Cognitive View
- fundamental process: needed for survival; mental house cleaning (brain organizing day's material)
Problem solving theory: dreams give people a chance to review and address problems from the day; incubation period; "sleep on it"
inability to sleep or stay asleep
interrupted sleep due to an individual who has stopped breathing
problem because: your brain loses O2, development, disrupting cycles (don't get through cycle)
suddenly falling into REM sleep
sudden infant death syndrome
- babies need to be on back to sleep
- back to sleep campaigns
- accidental suffocation
- can be genetic if brain tells body to stop breathing
risky up until about four months
REM behavior disorder
acting out your dreams
types of drugs
stimulant: anything that increases NS activity (ex: caffeine, etc.)
depressant: anything that decreases NS activity (ex: alcohol)
opiate: anything that acts as a pan killer (hit endorphins) ex: heroine
hallucinogen: LSD, psychadelics; anythign that gives you an out of body experience
ANYTHING you put into your body that changes conscious awareness, mood, or perception
the pattern of use that causes serious social, legal, or interpersonal problems for the user
symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of a habit-forming substance; causes discomfort, distress, crvings, etc.
a condition in which increasingly higher drug doses are needed to produce the same effect
cross tolerance: use of one drug incereases the tolerance for another
you need it function mentally and feel good; use the drug to get a sense of well being
development of physical need for drug; body processes have been modified by repeated use of drug that contninued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms