BIOL 189 Exam 1 Macromolecules

  1. What is an
    organic compound?
    • After water, carbon based-molecules are the most
    • common compounds in living organisms
  2. What are  hydrocarbons and what is a ‘carbon skeleton’?
    Hydrocarbons- carbon and hydrogen only


    • Carbon skeletons can take a variety of
    • forms; length, arrangement, double bonds, linear or circular
  3. What is an
    isomer? Same ____, different _____
    Isomer: Same formula, different structure
  4. What are the
    functional groups- be able to name and draw those discussed in class, and to
    say why are they important?
    • Hydroxyl  -OH, Carbonyl 
    • -C = O, Carboxyl –C-OH = O, Amino –Nh2 , Phosphate –PO4


    • These groups participate in the
    • chemical reaction in the cell.
  5. What is the
    phosphate group?
    • The phosphate group is important in living things in
    • different ways. Firstly, it is an important structural component of nucleotide,
    • which is the basic structural unit of DNA and RNA. Secondly, it is a
    • component of energy-rich molecules, such as ATP. Thirdly, it is
    • also bound to coenzymes
    • like NADP / NADPH involved in anabolic
    • reactions (such as photosynthesis
    • in plants and lipid
    • synthesis in animals).
    • It is also a part of the hydrophilic
    • head of phospholipids
    • in biological membrane
  6. What are the four type of macromolecules?

    • Nucleic
    • acids


  7. What are monomers and polymers for each type?
    • Protein:
    • Amino acids are the monomers that make up protein


    • Nucleic
    • acids: made up of monomers known as nucleotides


    • Carbohydrates:
    • carbohydrates occur as both monomers
    • and polymers. Small carbohydrates are called sugars, which commonly include monosaccharides (single sugars) and
    • some disaccharides (two sugars linked together). Larger carbohydrates are
    • called polysaccharides (many
    • sugars linked together).


    • Lipids: monomers:
    • glycerol and fatty acids
  8. How are polymers made and disassembled within a cell?
    • Polymers are very
    • large molecules joined together, end-to-end. 
    • They are disassembled through a process called Hydrolysis.  Hydrolysis is when a bond is broken (lysed)
    • between monomers by the addition of water (hydro).
  9. What is the
    general structure of each type of macromolecule (basic element, appearance)? (Essay question)
  10. Compare and
    contrast the structure and function of monosaccharaides and disaccharides with
    polysaccharides. (essay question)
    monossacharides and diasaccharides
  11. What is the general function of each type of macromolecules?
    • Carb: Energy
    • storage, receptors, structure of plant cell wall


    • Protein:
    • Enzymes, structure, receptors, transport, and more


    • Nucleic
    • Acid: Information storage and transfer


    • Lipids:
    • Membrane structure, energy storage insulation
  12. High fructose corn syrup: where does it come from? Is it dangerous?
    • Sugar is
    • sucrose, a disaccharide (fructose + glucose)

    • Starch which
    • has been hydrolyzed becomes glucose monomers

    • Enzymes
    • rearrange to 55% of monomers fructose isomer


    • It is
    • manufactured in the US than anywhere else.


    • It is
    • dangerous because of mixed results:

    • -Unrealistic
    • studies (e.g. all fructose vs all glucose)

    • -Panel
    • suggest no systematic differences between consuming HFCS and sucrose

    • -Extraction
    • method
  13. How do the three types of lipids differ from each other in structure
    and function?
    • Triglycerides/or
    • fats, Phospholipids, and Steroids



    • Triglycerides
    • function is energy storage, cushion, and insulation


    • the
    • dehydration synthesis reactions on one glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains


    • Phospholipids
    • FUNCTION is cell membranes


    • Glycerol,
    • but one C(carbon) is attached to PO4, so only 2 fatty acid chains attch


    • Steroids FUNCTION
    • is a precursors for hormones/hormones and bile acids, component of cell
    • membrane (in addition to phospholipids)


    • NO fatty
    • acids chains,4 fused rings
  14. How is saturated fat different from unsaturated fat?
    • Saturated fat
    • are saturated with hydrogen; in other words the number of hydrogen atoms
    • attached to the carbon skeleton is maximized.


    • Most
    • unsaturated fats are liquids at room temperature and are called oils.
  15. What are the four levels of protein structure, and how are they held
    • Primary- the
    • linear sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain

    • Secondary-
    • the secondary structures are held together by hydrogen bonds.

    • Tertiary-
    • held together by the interactions between the side chains- the “R” group

    • Quaternary-
    • are held together by the same types of chemical bonds that are found in
    • tertiary structure, including a variety of weak bonds and disulfide bridges.
  16. How does protein structure affect functions by its folding?
    • Proteins have 3
    • dimensional structure which determines their function.  If denature occurs, the shape of the proteins
    • begins to unfold, therefore losing its function.
  17. Types of structures of nucleic acids:
    • DNA:
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (Double helix, uses Thymine)

    • RNA:
    • Ribonucleic Acid (Single helix, Uracil substitute instead of Thymine)
  18. Function of Nucleic Acid, and how their forms fits their function
    • Functions
    • plan to build proteins. 


    • DNA is made
    • up of different sequences of Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and
    • Thymine (T)


    • RNA also contains A, G, and C but T is replaced
    • for Uracil (U).  Uses Ribose not
    • deoxyribose
  19. Essay Question: What are two types of nucleic acids? Breifly describe
    two structural differences between them. What is the function of each?
    • DNA-Double
    • Helix

    • RNA- Single
    • Helix
Card Set
BIOL 189 Exam 1 Macromolecules
nevada state college biol 189