A&P 2 exam 1 (part 4)

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  1. study of hormones
  2. released outside of body
  3. released into blood stream
  4. very slow and influences metabolism via chemical messages
    endocrine system
  5. electrochemical impulses regulate muscles and glands
    nervous system
  6. major endocrine glands
    pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus glands
  7. presence of a hormone causes both of these to happen
    AMP and PIP
  8. 2 types of hormones are derived from
    • fat
    • protein
  9. this type of hormone is more popular than a steroid based hormone
    amino acid based (derived from protein)
  10. hormone that works by a secondary messenger system
    amino acid based
  11. 2 types of secondary messenger systems
    • cyclic AMP (cAMP)
    • PIP- calcium signaling mechanism
  12. type of protein and receives info from a hormone
  13. breaks down energy (ATP) into cAMP
    adenylate cyclase
  14. 2 messages a cell get in cAMP signaling?
    • that hormone is there
    • adenylate cyclase breaks down ATP into cAMP
  15. molecule of guanosine is attached to the protein and it is inactive until hormone binds on to the receptor
    g protein
  16. GDP goes to GTP when
    you add 3 phosphates
  17. may cause cell to open ion channels, but it depends on hormone and what it is designed to do
    protein kinese
  18. why do you want more glucose in your blood stream?
    so you can combine it with O2 and create more energy
  19. glucose + O2 ==>
    co2 + H20 + ATP
  20. enable transcription inside the cell
    steroid hormones
  21. has no secondary messenger system and just goes straight into the cell
    steroidal hormones
  22. when a hormone is released, the concentration of that hormone ____, the concentration of blood will go ____
    • increase
    • down (down regulating)
  23. ex of humoral response
    parathyroid hormone
  24. travel in blood free or bound to protein carriers
  25. blood hormone concentration decrease bc of
    • degraded by target organs
    • removal by kidneys and liver
  26. half life of a hormone?
    seconds to 30 mins
  27. when the concentration of the hormone is 50% of its maximal level
    half life
  28. half life refers to
    concentration in plasma
  29. 3 major stimuli of hormone release
    • humoral
    • neural
    • hormonal
  30. fluid in human body when Ca++ lowering causes PTH release
  31. nerve cell where SNS stimulates adrenal gland to release epinephrine
  32. hypothalamus releases hormones that cause pituitary to release other hormones
    hormonal (common) stumuli
  33. plasma changes in human body due to
    change in ionic content or as a result of change in nutrient status
  34. releases precursor hormone
  35. breaks down stored fat and turns it into fatty acids to make ATP
    growth hormone
  36. 2 areas particularly targeted by growth hormone that grow the most
    bone and skeletal muscle
  37. substance released before thyroid hormone is released
  38. initial stimulus that acts on body temperature
  39. controls body temperature
  40. regulates metabolic rate
    thyroid hormone
  41. thyroid stimulating hormone
  42. thyroid releasing hormone
  43. why is calcium needed
    • bone growth
    • muscle contraction
    • the nervous system to communicate from 1 neuron to another
    • blood clotting
  44. if growth hormone is down regulated, than it will create
  45. when calcium level is too low,
    pth is released
  46. up regulating osteoclast activity means that
    calcium is released into bloodstream
  47. mediates process of absorbing calcium from diet through wall
  48. calcium goes out of kidney and back into the bloodstream
    calcium reabsorption
  49. what allows calcium to be reabsorbed
  50. converts stored proteins into glucose
  51. low level of plasma glucose
  52. series of different hormones that affect plasma glucose levels
  53. when body temperature goes up, what happens to the rate of ATP production?
    it goes up
  54. take stored body reserves, convert into glucose and use
  55. when levels are too high of glucocorticoids, the body
    down regulates cortisol production
  56. __ and ___ reabsorption are linked in kidneys
    • salt and water
    • water follows salt
  57. cause bronchial dilation
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  58. quickest way to increase blood pressure?
    vasoconstrict blood vessels
  59. catecholamines?
    another name for epinephrine and norepinephrine
  60. 2 hormones released by the pancreas?
    insulin and glucagon
  61. when too much glucose is released?
  62. in times of starvation, what happens to plasma glucose?
    it goes down and the pancreas releases glucagon
  63. hormone that promotes birth
  64. elimating water
  65. if you drink a lot, but cant get rid of it what happens to your blood pressure?
    it increases
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A&P 2 exam 1 (part 4)
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