Exploring Anthro 305

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  1. How is anthropology distinctive, regarding how we look at or study humans?

    Describe anthropology as a distinctive study. Why is Anthropology unique?
    • ☀Anthropology is the study of humankind
    • ☀it studies humans everywhere
    • ☀avoids ethnocentrism, is not biased, and remains objective.
    • explores entire panorama of human origins in the form of culture and social life.
    • hallmark of the holistic perspective in understanding the dynamism of humankind.
    • ☀uses four-field approach to engage in a more global understanding of human diversity.
  2. 4 (5) subfields of anthropology
    • Linguistic
    • Archaeological
    • Biological
    • Sociocultural
    • Applied Anthropology
  3. why do anthropologists study?
    • they want to define universal traits for humans
    • find out what people have in common and how they differ
    • seek to study and find variety, similarity, universality, and diversity
  4. how long have we lived as homosapiens?
    roughly 180,000 - 200,000 years ago
  5. when did domestication of food start?
    about 10,000 years ago
  6. since the domestication of food and evolvement of homosapiens anthropologists have been interested in what?
    • interested in how we have changed our lifestyle
    • the long term development in this lifestyle change
    • and also biological (teeth size, physical changes) and cultural changes
  7. what changes happen with the advent of food domestication?
    • food domestication leads to
    • more accumulation of food leads to
    • permanent settlements leads to
    • development of art (occupational specialization because not all people are engaged in food production)leads to
    • health issues (decrease in health) leads to
    • diseases
  8. Humans are both biological and cultural beings, why?
    • humans modify and shape biological existence through cultural means
    • biology influences culture
    • ex, food and medical advances and reproductive technology
    • humans are different from animals both biologically and culturally
    • biological
    • humans eat, breathe, sleep, mate, and die, dont have fur or vocal chords etc.
  9. Anthropological perspectives:

    What is ethnocentrism and how do anthropologists deal with it?

    • ☀Ethnocentrism is judging other cultures by the standards of your own.
    • ☀Anthropologists must dispel this idea by being objective and viewing things in a nonbiased manner.
    • ☀Anthropologists must understand that all cultures are different.
    • Also natural to be ethnocentric.ex. shoes in the house
    • ☀however, anthropologists must be cognizant of this and think of ethnocentrism as something to overcome
  10. advantages and disadvantages
  11. What is cultural relativism, and what is it not?
    • one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
    • opposes ethnocentrism
    • rules of all cultures deserve equal respect
    • not all cultures are equal or all values acceptable
    • not everyone shares the same values, but if you understand others values then it will make sense to you (if their ideology is understood)
    • example: Inuits healing ritual - illness is caused by spirits (still retain your perspective, but keep in mind their perspective)
    • anthropologists attempt to understand the assumptions and beliefs that underlie behavior
  12. comparatism
    • anthropologist perspective on comparing between cultures
    • diversity and universality
  13. holism
    • study of the whole human condition across the 4 subfields in all aspects throughout time and across space
    • connections within cultures should be interrelated and integrated (ex. phone - it changes overtime - lifestyle convenience/social aspect)
    • if one aspect changes other aspects change too
  14. Why are comparatism and holism so important for anthropology?
    • Comparatism for anthropology is important because it is the perspective on comparing between cultures while understanding diversity and universality.
    • Holism is the study of the whole human condition across the 4 subfields in all aspects throughout time and across space. Both of these aspects are important for anthropology and the connections they make within cultures that should be interrelated and integrated.
  15. Egg freezing in the zionist community article:
    Whats it about?
    Why is it an anthropological study?
    • religious controversy
    • pressure with women bearing children
    • anthros are looking biology such as infertility and female limitation of reproduction. Peak of female reproduction 25-30.
    • anthros look at culture - biological events could change because of culture. cultural technology influences biology.
  16. Egg freezing in the zionist community article:
    What is now possible?
    Why is it possible?
    What new policies are being introduced and why?
    • it is possible by new technology to postpone childbearing
    • approval by some religious leaders (Rabi's)
    • IVF to egg freezing - infertility influenced new policies. it gives people a choice to delay for later.
  17. Egg freezing in the zionist community article:
    What are the possibilities with egg freezing?
    • delayed infertility
    • postpone childrearing
  18. Egg freezing in the zionist community article:
    secular women vs. religious women explain the stigmas they had or faced with IVF or freezing issues
    • Secular women: they have socioeconomic, social, and emotional difficulties, they are not married, but despite the difficulties they still do it
    • Religious women: they must be married because of their religious doctrine. therefore having children is not right without a husband, but they cannot secure a husband and so they are left in a dilemma and go through psychological dilemmas.
  19. Egg freezing in the zionist community article:
    why is it not that optimistic?
    • because they still have to wait but they provide some psychological comfort
    • they have to get approval by rabbi's and some dont agree because its not guaranteed that women will find a mate.
  20. Egg freezing in the zionist community article:
    What are some anthropological study questions?
    • What is the success rate for finding a mate after IVF for secular and religious women?
    • Does marriage rate increase or decrease with IVF?
    • What is the average age a woman decides to freeze her eggs?
  21. Egg freezing in the zionist community article:
    consequences of egg freezing
    • religiousity
    • public opinions
    • individual struggle
    • cultural change
    • generational difference outlook
    • socioeconomic tendencies
    • age of decision (biological clock)
    • chances of getting married
  22. Types of Marriage patterns in the U.S
    • same sex marriage
    • interracial marriage
    • monogamous not polygamous
  23. 2 types of polygamy
    • polyandry - one woman can take multiple husbands
    • polygyny - one man can take multiple wives
  24. Marriage Patterns in the US:
    monogamy, in particular serial monogomy, what is it and what contributes to it?
    • being married to only one person at a time, but one after another in terms of divorce
    • most likely to happen with high rate of divorce and remarriage
    • contributing factors is social influence, economic status, stability, and accessibility
  25. Marriage Patterns in the US:
    Ideology of marriage in the US
    Ideology of marriage in other places
    • US: based on romantic love therefore they feel like they can get married
    • Other places: based on economics rather than romantic love and are therefore more likely to stay with each other
  26. Marriage Patterns in the US:
    Economic systems & opportunities
    • provides women with opportunity for exploration
    • can be based on economics
    • higher education influence
  27. Marriage Patterns in the US:
    • influences divorce rate; varies by gov't structure
    • influenced on subsidy provided after divorce
    • example: sweden vs. US - Sweden has high divorce rate because of amount of subsidy paid out, but not high remarriage rate. In US it is high divorce rate bc of lack of welfare
  28. Marriage Patterns in the US:
    Post marital residence type in US
    what are the other types?
    • Neolocal - married couple establishes their own residence (common in US)
    • Patrilocal - woman moves to husbands residence or community
    • Matrilocal - husbands moves to wifes residence or community
    • Serial monogomy is less likely to happen with matrilocal and patrilocal societies
  29. Marriage Patterns in the US:
    Kin Investment
    • family rarely invest in marriage unlike band societies or other societies who engage in bridewealth
    • bridewealth is when husbands side gives gift to wifes side because wifes side loses the wife and will reproduce for husbands side.  (divorce less likely because of the inability to repay gift)
  30. Marriage Patterns in the US:
    legal issues
    • its expensive
    • more difficult when children are involved
  31. Comparative perspective:
    (anthros not only holistic, but comparative)
    • always looking for comparative studies between things such as US Serial Monogamy vs Melanisia Polygamy (polygyny) (how they choose their spouses)
    • other things we can compare are characteristics of husband - the number of wives they have, number of children, economic status, prestige
  32. Anthropological investigation: What 6 (7) things do anthropologists look for?
    • Pattern
    • change
    • meaning
    • structure or relation
    • function
    • adaptation
    • The BIG PICTURE - looking at things in a holistic manner involving the 4 subfields if applicable
  33. Anthropological Investigation:
    • they look for patterns in behavior, thinking and actions in all 4 subfields
    • patterns in environmental and genetic association (climate pattern)
    • language (in relation to cultural orientations; ex. btween men and women, btween subordinates and dominants)
    • patterns in beliefs and actions in relations to values and ideas
    • patterns are descriptive - they look at "why is this pattern here?" and then they ask another "Why is that pattern there?" and so on
    • ideal or normative Vs. actual experience (finding out actual patterns when you actually go there rather than just what you researched or heard)
  34. Anthropological Investigation:
    • biological anthropologists look for change in human evolution - response to ever changing environment (evolution process = evolution has no goal)
    • biological anthropologists look for change in biological evolution -example increased height and elongated limbs between the different regions according to environment
    • Social and cultural change they focus on population or groups not individuals
    • they can study individuals but only to illustrate the group and understand the range of the patterns
    • example: American meaning of success in 1950's vs. Today - anthros look for change in these types of questions
  35. Anthropological Investigation:
    • search for meaning from the perspective of the community being studied
    • 2 types of perspectives: Emic (insiders perspective) & Etic (outsiders perspective)
    • look into meaning of Symbol - shared knowledge - arbitrary  used to stand for something else ex. salt purification in japan
    • look below the surface of customs, practices & events to find communal understanding
    • anthros look for meaning in a specific time, place, and cultural context to understand people, values, and norms
    • (example clifford geertz study balinese cockfighting showed that the
    • MEANING of this was to show male ego, personal honor, and village
    • rivalry)
  36. Emic Vs. Etic perspective
    • Emic - insider perspective (people being studied)
    • Etic - Outsiders perspective (ethnographer)
  37. Anthropological Investigation:
    Structure or Relation
    • how components of society are related to each other
    • How society works or not
    • relationships of components and concepts
    • people may not be aware of how things are related
    • ex. religious institutions: structure or emphasis on hard work and humility
    • ex. gift giving: social structure and power relationships (reciprocity in gift giving)
    • relationships may be rather exploitative (global division of labor - employee/employer trust example)
    • structure has some connections to meaning and symbol
    • Revulsion or Pollution (Mary Douglas) - human beings try to categorize things and sometimes its not clear ex. bats or unborn child & mother in some societies (things fall outside of normal classification that is difficult for humans to classify)
    • ex. japanese genken structure (area where you take off your shoes (the idea of being in danger or being a danger to others)
  38. 3 types of reciprocity
    • Generalized - you do not expect anything back in a timely manner (ex. parental support)
    • Balanced - giving and getting something back in a timely manner (ex.exchange of christmas gifts)
    • Negative - trying to get as much as you can by paying or giving as little as possible (ex. Stealing)
  39. Anthropological Investigation:
    • 2 types of function: Manifest (obvious) & Latent (hidden) (example: raindance & homecoming function is everyone gets together to promote oneness and social integration)
    • Often link with structure - to allow the overall social structure to exist ex. gift giving in japan; 'potlach' -ceremonial feast to establish social structure and power
    • functional interrelationship - some function is related to other aspects of life. ex. technology to solve/improve the problems of survival (technology also changes function of society such as shift in social organization and belief)
    • also no link - function is to merely meet basic human needs e.g. marginal practice to alleviate anxiety
  40. Anthropological Investigation:
    • how things adapt to social and physical environment
    • somehow linked to function - continue to exist because of adaptive function
    • (example: exogamy - custom of marrying outside the tribe, family, clan, or other social unit. functions as networking/political alliance)
    • (endogamy - custom of marrying within a particular social or cultural group in accordance with custom or law. same socioeconomic status, race, religion)
    • not all beliefs or practice is adaptive (ex. ancient mesopotamia irrigation system that led to their fall)
    • how aspects of culture articulates with local ecology or social environment (ex. Social = china banquet; ecology= harvest moon)
    • biological adaptation (how people change according to environment that changes their culture)
  41. Anthropological Investigation:
    • the interrelatedness of things
    • be holistic (dont understand things in isolation)
    • look at causes, results, influences, and associations
    • can look at individuals in order to understand groups and institutions
    • look at biology because culture can change biological events
    • look at physical environment (ecology) and whats available to us
  42. Educated Parenthood Article in relation to:
    • Pattern: all the women breastfed longer, cosleep, use cloth diapers, restrict plastics and chemicals, delayed vaccination, more likely to be educated and relatively late child rearing. The women are more likely to go against pediatrician advice
    • Function: behavior of women are more towards attachment theory
    • structure:
    • meaning:
    • change:
    • adaptation: learning more from popular culture rather then from Kin bc of coming from small families and smaller social environments
  43. Study Topics
    • Any human related topics are possible
    • Example shopping behavior and gender differences
    • its more than simply finding things, we look for meanings and social structure
    • in order to understand patterns, change, cause and effect
  44. When you choose a study topic in anthropology, what are some of the issues that you should be aware of?

    we must consider some issues with study topics such as
    • 1. does this topic interest me? The answer has to be yes. Although sometimes you can be limited depending on the topic or the questioned asked (example male circumcision in Africa - if you are a female researcher you will not be allowed to enter)
    • 2. Is it observable? It has to be observable because you need some kind of data, but sometimes things are not physically observable (ex. derogatory references to women in the old testament - we need to define what is derogatory and the only way is from the people who wrote it)  make a boundary of your statement, look at processes, narratives, and categorization (ex. emergence of social stratification in the past)
    • 3. are adequate resources available? time, money, people
    • 4. Is this ethical? some topics can cause problems regarding insults or the questions asked towards the research participants. Always get informed consent.
    • 5 .Is it a theoretical and/or practical Interest? This leads to god study questions or hypothesis, provides ways on how to look at the issues
  45. What is a paradigm and what is theory?  Be
    familiar with the paradigms or theoretical perspectives introduced in class.

    Theory vs. paradigm
    • Theory: a well-established scientific principle that is supported by convincing experimental and observational evidence. A theory has strong explanatory power that helps to understand and describe the universe and make predictions about future events
    • Paradigm: a central conceptual framework for how you can view the world around you. A paradigm can be so pervasive and broadly accepted as to be almost unnoticed, much the way you don't usually notice the air you breathe.
  46. A good study is based on:
    • paradigm: a few basic rules for finding theories of events (doesnt explain cause and effect)
    • theory - explaining and predicting theory
    • could be based on previous studies or research (looking at what has been already done and explaining or arguing it further)
  47. Some major theoretical perspectives and paradigms
    • Marxist
    • sociobiology
    • feminist
    • symbolic or interpretive
    • postmodernism
  48. Marxist
    • materialistic perspective
    • concerned with class structure between groups
    • class struggle, conflict, and exploitation
    • ex. wittfogels hydraulic theory (explaining things on a large scale. ex. irrgation systems of civilizations and the establishment of beuracreacies...questions who is going to control the irrigation system
    • some kind of division of labor or leadership needs to be established
  49. sociobiology
    • kin selection
    • each individual trying to maximize their reproductive success
    • example: if older sibling does not have children she can help younger sibling with her child to maximize her success???
  50. materialism
    • focus on economy, means of production, demography (population), and or environment they are interested in for survival
    • example: why not eat cows in india even if they are starving?
    • a materialists is interested in the long term perspective with how these people dont eat cows because of the usefulness of the cow to provide milk and be a draft animal. if there is no cow there will be no milk for subsistence or work accomplished
    • symbolically they dont eat cow bc of their religion, but materialists are looking for deeper meaning than this
  51. feminist
    looks at gender dimension and empowerment of women
  52. symbolic or interpretive
    • interested in how people formulate their reality
    • interpretation of symbols
    • example: mary douglas (universal pattern: if something cannot fit in a certain pattern it is related to pollution or tied to divinity)
    • turner (social coherance with symbolic inversion)
    • geertz (cockfighting = transmitting meaning)
    • pandian (symbolic inversion)
  53. postmodernism
    • interested in subjectivity and what is true against modernism and scientific western knowledge
    • what is true should not only be based on western knowledge
    • tensions came from processes of globalization and capitalism (mostly western)
    • practice theory = how individuals transform the world in which they live (example: powerless people going against the social norm to survive)
    • these individuals are considered free agents
    • free agents modify their own cultural environment; they can modify and adjust their own lives the way they see fit
    • example: japanese reproduction (male biases and gender ideology, gender division of labor, men vs. women. now a days women act as an agent even if they are being suppressed)
  54. Nemawashi in Japan
    • Used to address  "prior consultation" to avoid conflict and obtain a consensus in decision making
    • unanimity rule - everyone agrees/reach a consensus
    • traditionally harmony is important bc it was rewarded
    • literal meaning - to dig around the roots of a tree prior transplanting , thus easier to transplant.
    • used in hierarchical japanese business model which is bottom up vs. US which is top down
    • used especially in politics and business when there is conflict or for when decisions need to be made
    • time consuming but things go smoothly
    • (study questions about nemawashi: is it observable, resources, ethical? Study questions based on theoretical or practical interest: cultural materialism: how does it affect production & economy & who does it affect. feminist: differences between men and women in power using nemawashi model. Practice theory: act as their own free agent)
  55. What is a good study question, and how can you come up with one that is anthropological?
    (next 2 slides incorporated)
    • focus on a particular aspect of your topic
    • find narrower topic for research
    • then further narrow your focus questions or hypothesis
    • ex. infant mortality rate in rural bolivia based on water and health
  56. To further narrow your focus (questions or hypothesis) you may consider:
    • Who: gender, age, ethnicity, parent, student etc
    • what: household, religion, medicine, reproduction
    • which: noncash income, ritual, doc-patient interaction, contraceptive use
    • where and when you focus
    • Why: "why such behavior?", "why did this change?"
    • How: how it works, how local people interpret, how they are related
  57. Do Material Research:
    • research what has already been done
    • cant duplicate other research
    • refine your research by looking at other scholastic books, journals, and bibliography
    • be careful of biases and misleading information in nonscholastic material such as media, internet, magazines and journals
  58. Be familiar with conceptualization and how it is carried out/approached.
    • clarification of vague concepts
    • drawing boundaries with words and examples so that you and readers have clear understanding
    • ex. social stratification...what do you mean by this concept?...clarify it as the difference in access to power, wealth, prestige
    • if needed refer to dictionary for clarification of vague ideas
    • dimensions (indicators): indicator of wealth (property, money), power (how many subordinates one has), prestige (education)
    • ex. of successful aging = health, wealth, social interaction, status of women, education level
  59. external social control:
    • the universal people have sanctions for infractions
    • human society implements rules or laws to keep behaviors in check
    • imposed by other members of society
    • positive for doing right (encouraged)
    • negative for doing wrong (sanctioned)
    • reinforcing approved actions
    • extinguishing negative ones
  60. Reading the bones of La Florida

    (related to operationalization)
    • bioarchaeological contribution
    • how food sources changed
    • carbon 12 vs 13:consumption of c3 and c4
    • c3: rice, wheat, nuts, fruits
    • c4: corn, sugarcorn, millet (after spanish contact)
    • Bones: N14 (marine) and N15 (terrestrial)
    • after spanish contact diets changed for indians
    • more corn = declining health, tooth decay
    • corn has phylate that inhibits absorption of iron that leads to anemia
    • corn is an inadequte source of calcium, niacin, vitamin B, protein
    • hypoplasia are the lines on teeth caused by malnutrition and disease
    • evdence by Retzius lines - growth lines in enamel can detect growth rate, indicates poor diet, disease from contaminated water leads to parasite infection
    • evidence of anemia - parasite such as hookworm, sieve like lesions on bone caused by iron deficiency and scurvy (lack of vit. c)
    • osteoarthritis: increase work load, wear and tear on joint
    • strength of boe more stronger with contact vs. precontact
  61. Be familiar with operationalization and how it is carried out/approached.
    • ☀similar to conceptualization, but involves ☀how to examine/ look at concepts
    • ☀how a concept is examined or measured
    • ☀how it is distinguishable (plan on how research is conducted)
    • ☀must be specific, definite, and applicable for the purpose of research
    • ☀develop research procedures: surveys, interviews, observations

    • Step 1: Clarify unclear expressions
    • ex: topic - immigrants accultration and americanidentity (clarify acculturation and american identity...define and find boundaries of each...find dimensions such as language and social life)

    Step 2: define and specify items for the purpose of the study (ex. how long immigrants have been here and purpose and origin for migration) (specify immigrants, ethnicity, age, location; find dimensions of acculturation - such as life and ideology, interactions with non family members, american identity: how to obtain data on   belonging feeling)

    Step 3: making instruments (what kind to use interview, narrative, survey, observation)(how to measure degree of individualism? importance of validity or reliability
  62. What are variables?
    • things that take on more than one value by either words or numbers.
    • Anthropologists look for associations between variables that are measured by indicators, which can be hidden or obvious such as socioeconomic status and religion.
  63. levels of measurement:

    NOMINAL Variable
    • uses a lot of names
    • such as occupation (teacher, doctor), ethnicity(white, black), religion, emotion
    • nothing about degree or amount
    • sometimes not mutually exclusive (doesnt have only one value - ex. doctor and teacher)
    • qualitative measurement only
  64. levels of measurement:

    Ordinal Variable
    • ordered rank
    • example: socioeconomic status (lower, middle, upper), strongly agree to strongly disagree
    • does not tell how much different it is (ex. do you support contraceptive use? values arestrongly agree- disagree...cannot differ much)
    • no way to tell how much actual difference
  65. levels of measurement:

    interval variable
    • shows difference
    • meaningful distance between the attributes ex. 30 degree c to 40 degres....difference is 10 degrees Celsius, but 80 degrees is twice as hot as 40 degrees...how hot it is we cannot tell
    • doesnt show scale
  66. levels of measurement:

    Ratio variable
    • highets level of variable
    • having a true zero point - the abscence of the phenomenon
    • in the social sciences sometimes interval and ratio variables treated the same (ex. educational level...how many years of education you get...between 0-13....0 doesnt mean no knowledge, but just a variable. 5 year of formal education vs 10 years does this mean that 10 years is twice as smart? we dont really know)
    • example of ratio variable: age, income in dollars, population size
  67. rule of measurement with variables
    • Rule of measurement means measuring things at the highest-level first at all costs possible because the highest level can be modified to a lower level if needed.
    • It avoids having to backtrack or doing more things if not necessary.
  68. What are validity, reliability, preciseness, and accuracy?

    • does it really answer the question
    • is it an accurate measurement
    • is what you are asking what you will like to see
    • measuring what it is intended to measure? (ex SAT and GRE measures how successful a person would be, but is it really the case? no)
    • validity of data is tied to the type of instruments used (survey/interview etc)
  69. how to make judgments based on validity?
    • face validity: consensus among researchers (common sense values) ex. how old are you? measuring age, are you using contraceptive? yes/no...its simple answer
    • content validity: having approporate content. (ex. measuring arthmetic ability. do you focus on testing only addition? no . you have to have other content) touch to achieve bc its multidimensional you may have to ask many questions in certain cases. ex. measuring ethnic identity...what kind of questions could you ask? must cover many things religion, language, sense of history.
    • construct validity - using theoretically suggested correlation. ex. students self esteem associated with school activities. The more activities the higher self esteem. correlation between your measurement of self esteem and school activities.
    • criterion validity: measures from some other instrument that is known to be valid. ex. household wealth in bangledesh (cant just look at income, but can also look at material used to build shelter)
  70. reliability
    • always getting the same consistent answer
    • however some questions are more reliable than others because of straight forwardness - ex "how many cousins do you have vs. who is your favorite cousin, the later can differ depending on mood or subjectivity
    • asking a person how depressed they are or asking questions depending on the persons mood is not very reliable because it can change
    • example: in an interview answers can change depending on mood, comfort level, and environment the person is in therefore you always want to assess this
    • ways to increase reliability is to aim for consistency with variables
    • if possible, retest or provide alternative questions to check for consistency
    • alternative questions is more preferred because then the person is not giving biased answers based on already known knowledge of the question
  71. preciseness
    • how many decimal points you would like to have in a measurement
    • example the late 19th century vs 1898 - sometimes you want to aim for more preciseness with your measurements
    • ex. coomb scale - a way to measure preferred family size more precisely
  72. accuracy
    • closeness to the actual true value
    • Question: if your study is valid, reliable, and precise enough, but not valid why is it so and how can this happen?
    • it can be all other things except valid in the example of taking weight measurements. if the scale is uncalibrated, no matter how many times a weight is taken consistently it still remains invalid because the scale was not set to begin with
    • sometimes you cannot validate something, it is just as much a philisophical question and that sometimes you are going to just have to trust it
  73. article turkish women in germany
    • who (target study): turkish women between 41-70 (2 groups)
    • what: parental reproduction influence pre and post migration
    • Where: living in germany
    • when: during the labor contract between germany and turkey, and after the 1960's oil crisis
    • why? are turkish women fertility behavior more likely to be influenced by parents.
    • hypothesis was proven wrong - there is a greater parental influence with group 2 women who had children after migrating to germany
    • interpretation: seperation of women from husband or children for long periods at a time can affect reproduction process because of the delayed social bonding between partners. it disrupts parental influence by bringing economic and psychological hardships
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Exploring Anthro 305
Exploring Anthro 305
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