PEDs - Cardiac (Exam 2)

  1. Related factors of cardiac disease:  Maternal age?  Maternal weight?
    • Age <18 or>40
    • Wt <100 or >200
  2. What is significant about the heart rate until age 5?
    • HR varies according to O2 needs = higher resting HR
    • CO dependent on HR
  3. Why is there an increased risk of HF in children under 5 yrs old?
    due to inability to adapt to volume or pressure increases
  4. Hole b/w the two atria; soft murmur with "fixed split S2"; can be asymptomatic if small.
    Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
  5. Treatment for ASD (Atrial Septal Defect).
    Closes naturally or may ned cardiac cath closure or surgery
  6. What happens if ASD is not treated?
    May develop dysrhythmias, pulmonary vascular obstructive disease
  7. Hole b/w two ventricles of heart; most common congenital heart defect.
    Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  8. Loud harsh murmur starting at 4-8 weeks of age; can be asymptomatic if small.
    Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
  9. Treatment for Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).
    Closes naturally or needs surgical correction.
  10. What can happen if Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) goes untreated?
    Can develop pulmonary vascular obstructive disease
  11. Four heart defects that cause INCREASED pulmonary BF.
    • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
    • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
    • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
    • Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal) AKA Endocardial Cushion Defect
  12. What is Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) and s/s?
    • Ductus Arteriosus fails to close
    • Wide pulse pressure
    • Bounding pulses
    • Murmur
    • May be asymptomatic
  13. Infants with Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) may develop what?
  14. At what age is Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) common?
    preterm infants
  15. What is Ductus Arteriosus?
    The accessory vessel b/w pulmonary artery & aorta
  16. Which heart defect is associated with Down Syndrome?
    Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal) AKA Endocardial Cushion Defect
  17. What is Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal) AKA Endocardial Cushion Defect?
    Large ASD & VSD combined with defect in tricuspid and/or mitral valve
  18. s/s of Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal) AKA Endocardial Cushion Defect.
    • CHF
    • failure to thrive
    • respiratory problems
    • systolic murmur
    • split S2
  19. Treatment for Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal) AKA Endocardial Cushion Defect.
    Surgical repair
  20. What could happen if Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal) AKA Endocardial Cushion Defect goes untreated?
    Could develop pumonary vascular disease
  21. Treatment for Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA).
    • Give indomethacin to close PDA
    • May also need therapeutic catheterization or surgery (PDA ligation)
  22. Three defects that cause OBSTRUCTION of BF (ventricles).
    • Coarctation of Aorta
    • Pulmonic Stenosis
    • Aortic Stenosis
  23. What is Coarctation of Aorta?
    Aorta is narrowed, restricting BF to extremities (depending on where narrowing occurs)
  24. What is significant about BP with Coarctation of Aorta?
    It is high before defect; low after defect
  25. Treatment for Coarctation of Aorta.
    Coarc repair- includes balloon angioplasty or graft
  26. Mortality of Coarctation of Aorta.
    Less than 5% in isolated coarctation
  27. What is Pulmonic Stenosis?
    The pulmonary valve is stenotic (narrowing), restricting BF to pulmonary artery & lungs
  28. Effects of Pulmonic Stenosis.
    RV hypertrophy and decreased pulmonary BF
  29. Treatment for Pulmonic Stenosis.
    Valvotomy and/or balloon angioplasty
  30. Mortality for Pulmonic Stenosis.
    Less than 1%
  31. What is Aortic Stenosis?
    The aortic valve is stenotic (narrowing), restricting systemic BF
  32. Effects of Aortic Stenosis.
    LV hypertrophy and backpressure into pulmonary veins
  33. Treatment for Aortic Stenosis.
    Balloon angioplasty, aortic valve replacement
  34. Mortality of Aortic Stenosis.
    Less than 5%
  35. Four anomalies present in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
    • pulmonary stenosis,
    • VSD,
    • overriding aorta,
    • enlargement of the right ventricle (R ventricular hypertrophy)
  36. s/s of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
    • murmur
    • cyanosis,
    • polycythemia,
    • clubbing
    • clot formation
    • severe dyspnea
    • squatting
    • position in an effort to compensate for decreased venous return (known as "Tet Spells")
    • acidosis
    • growth retardation and failure to thrive
  37. Defects that cause DECREASED Pulmonary BF.
    • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
    • Tricuspid Atresia
Card Set
PEDs - Cardiac (Exam 2)
Peds exam 2 - cardiac