
Two or more chemical cells connected in a series.
Batteries

Graphic representation used to show the relationship between component group or stages in a circuit.
Block diagram

Direction of electron flow is from a point of negative potential to a point of positive potential.
Conventional and electron flow

To find the individual branch currents in a parallel circuit when only resistance and total current are known, the resistance in each circuit can be used to divide the total current into fractional currents in each branch.
Current division

Sum of the currents flowing through each branch of a parallel circuit is equal to the total current flow in the circuit.
Current in parallel

An armature coil cuts across the magnetic field to produce a voltage output.
DC generator

When the positive terminal of a voltage source is connected to a diode’s anode, and the negative terminal is connected to the cathode.
Forward bias

A circuit that rectifies the entire cycle of the AC sine wave.
Fullwave rectifier

When a single diode is used in a rectifier circuit, current will flow through the circuit only during one half of the input voltage cycle.
Halfwave rectifier

Law 1: The sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop is equal to the sum of the voltage sources of that loop (Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law).
Law 2: The current arriving at any junction point in a circuit is equal to the current leaving that junction (Kirchhof’'s Current Law).
Kirchhoff’s laws

Graphic representation showing the components of a circuit by means of single lines and the appropriate graphic symbols.
Oneline diagram

If one of the paths for current to flow is opened, current will continue to follow as long a some or more of the remaining paths provides a complete path.
Open circuit (parallel)

If the path for current is broken no current flows.
Open circuit (series)

Circuits that have two or more components connected across the same voltage source.
Parallel circuit

Converts AC power to DC power.
Rectifiers

Total resistance in a parallel circuit can be found by applying Ohm’s Law. Divide the voltage across the parallel resistance by the total line current.
Resistance in parallel

Total resistance in a series circuit is equal to the sum of all the parts of that circuit.
Resistance in series

The measure of the resistance a material imposes on current flow.
Resistivity

When the diode’s anode is connected to the negative side of the source, and the cathode is connected to the positive side of the source.
Reverse bias

The standard means by which we communicate information in electrical and electronics circuits.
Schematic diagram

A circuit where there is only one path for current flow.
Series circuit

A sudden and very large increase in circuit current associated with a zero or very low resistance current path.
Short circuit (parallel)

If there is no resistance in a circuit or if resistance suddenly becomes or approaches zero, a very large current will flow. Condition of very low resistance and high current flow.
Short circuit (series)

Is defined as the amount of change of the resistance of a material for a given change in temperature.
Temperature coefficient (α)

Consists of two different types of metal joined at a junction and is used to convert heat energy into a voltage output.
Thermocouples

Used when it is necessary to obtain different values of voltage from a single energy source.
Voltage divider

A very simple way to show wiring connections in an easy to follow manner.
Wiring diagram

LIST the four ways to produce a DC voltage.
 Batteries
 DC Generator
 Thermocouples
 Rectifiers

STATE the purpose of a rectifier.
The purpose of a rectifier circuit is to convert AC power to DC power

DESCRIBE the outputs of the following circuits:
a. Halfwave rectifier
b. Fullwave bridge rectifier
When a single diode is used in a rectifier circuit, current will flow through the circuit only during onehalf of the input voltage cycle
A fullwave rectifier circuit is a circuit that rectifies the entire cycle of the AC sinewave

DESCRIBE what is meant by the term “voltage divider”.
A voltage divider, or network, is used when it is necessary to obtain different values of voltage from a single energy source

DESCRIBE the voltage and current effects of an open in a series DC circuit
Circuits can be opened deliberately, such as by the use of a switch, or they may be opened by a defect, such as a broken wire or a burnedout resistor.
Since no current flows in an open series circuit, there are no voltage drops across the loads. The loads consume no power, and total power consumed by the circuit is zero.

DESCRIBE the voltage and current effects in a shorted DC circuit.
If there is no resistance in a circuit, or if the resistance suddenly becomes or approaches zero, a very large current will flow.

STATE Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
The sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop is equal to the sum of the voltage sources of that loop

STATE Kirchhoff’s Current Law.
The current arriving at any junction point in a circuit is equal to the current leaving that junction





The measure of the resistance a material imposes on current flow.
Resistivity

The amount of change of the resistance of a material for a given change in temperature
Temperature coefficient of resistance

An uninterrupted, or unbroken, path for current from the source (EMF), through the load, and back to the source.
Closed Circuit

Incomplete circuit, exists if a break in the circuit occurs; this prevents a complete path for current flow.
Open Circuit

A circuit that offers very little resistance to current flow and can cause dangerously high current flow through a circuit
Short Circuit

