Anatomy 403 Lecture Exam 1 - Muscles

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  1. Occipitofrontalis
    • links the frontal and occipital bones
    • raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead
  2. Epicranial aponeurosis
    Sheet-like tendon in between the occipitalis and frontalis muscles
  3. Platysma
    • Muscle almost exclusively in the neck with muscles in the jaw area
    • Innervated by CN7
    • Weird mouth-frown
  4. Orbicularis Oculi
    • Circular fascicles around the eye
    • allow for closing of the eye - winking
  5. Levator Palpebrae Superioris
    • On the eyelid
    • Opens the eye
    • Innervated by occularmotor nerve (CN3)
  6. Orbicularis Oris
    • Circular fascicles around the mouth
    • Allows for puckering of the mouth (kissing)
  7. Buccinator
    • One of the largest facial muscles
    • Roles in mastication and facial expression
    • Compresses the cheek, deep to the zygomaticus muscles
    • Whistling, sucking, blowing, chewing
    • Innervated by CN7
  8. Masseter and Temporalis
    • Muscles of mastication
    • Function in elevating the mandible
    • Innervated by trigeminal nerve - CN5
    • Masseter goes from skull to mandible
    • Temporalis covers the temple
  9. Medial & Lateral Pterygoids
    • Move the mandible from side to side
    • Lateral: protracts and thrusts the mandible forward
    • Medial: elevates the mandible
  10. Digastric
    • Depresses the mandible
    • 2 bellies - 2 innervations (one by CN7, the other by CN7)
    • Chin to neck
  11. Mylohyoid
    • From hyoid to mandible
    • Supports the floor of the mouth and elevates the hyoid for swallowing
  12. Sternocleidomastoid
    • Originates at the sternum and clavicle (2 heads)
    • Inserts at the mastoid process (temporal) and the nuchal line (occipital)
    • Innervated by CN11
    • Contraction of both flexes the cervical vertebrae - nods head
    • Contraction of one laterally flexes the neck and rotates the face in the opposite direction
  13. Splenius Capitis
    Semispinalis Capitis
    • Rotates the head to the same side of the contracting muscle
    • When acting together, they extend the head
    • Found in the back of the neck
  14. Pectoralis Major
    • Clavicular and sternocostal heads
    • Clavicular head: flexes the arm
    • Sternocostal head: extends the flexed arm to the side of the trunk
    • Acting together: adducts and medially rotates the arm and shoulder joints
    • Found in the breast area
  15. Pectoralis Minor
    • Anterior thoracic muscle
    • Originates from the ribs, inserts into the coracoid process of the scapula
    • Deep to the pectoralis major
  16. Serratus Anterior
    • Originates at the ribs, inserts into the inner surface of the scapula
    • Saw-like appearance
    • Long thoracic nerve innervates supperficially
  17. Trapezius
    • Posterior thoracic muscle
    • Extends from the skull and vertebral column and medially to the pectoral girdle
    • Most superficial back muscle
    • Together: rotate scapula upward, stabilizes scapula
    • Can elevate and depress scapula
  18. oRhomboid Major & Minor
    • Major: Inferior
    • Minor: Superior
    • Deep to the trapezius
    • forcibly lowers raised upper limbs (push scapula together)
  19. Rectus Abdominis
    • Spans the entire length of the anterior abdominal wall
    • Tendinous intersections --> six pack
    • Plays a role in flexing the vertebral column
  20. External & Internal Obliques
    • External: superficial, hands in pocket
    • Internal: middle, push hair out of face
    • Provide protection to the abdominal viscera
  21. Transverse Abdominis
    • Deep to the obliques
    • Provides protection to the abdominal viscera
  22. Diaphragm
    • Dome shaped
    • Separates thoracic and abdominal cavities of the ventral cavity
    • 3 major openings for structures to pass through between the thorax and abdomen (esophagus, aorta, inferior vena cava)
    • Innervated by the phrenic nerve
  23. External, Internal, & Innermost Intercostals
    • External: superficial
    • Internal: intermediate
    • Innermost: deep (poorly developed)
    • Innervated by thoracic spinal nerves
    • Function in forced breathing (internal = expiration, external = inhalation)
  24. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Incredibly strong and thick
    • Inferior part of the back
    • Functions in abducting and extending the arm
    • Forms most of the posterior wall on the axilla
    • Twist near insertion to increase mechanical advantage
  25. Deltoid
    • Thick, powerful, forms rounded contour of the shoulder
    • 3 sets of fibers in different areas
    • Flexion, abduction (after 15 degrees done by supraspinatus), rotation, extension of the humerus
  26. Biceps Brachii
    • Large muscle
    • Long (originates on scapula) and short (originates on humerus) heads
    • Spans shoulder and elbow joints
    • Flexes shoulder and supinates hand
    • Flexes forearm
  27. Brachialis
    • Deep to biceps brachii
    • Most powerful flexor of the forearm
  28. Triceps Brachii
    • Posterior surface of the arm
    • 3 heads or origin (long, lateral, medial) 
    • Long crosses the shoulder joint and the forearm, others don't
    • Extend the shoulder and forearm
  29. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Extend the wrist
    • Posterior in anatomical position
  30. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus & Brevis
    • Extend the wrist
    • Posterior in anatomical position
  31. Extensor Digitorum
    Occupies most of the posterior surface of the forearm
  32. Pronator Teres
    • From the medial epicondyle to the radius
    • Contraction turns the palm down toward the floor
  33. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    Flex the wrist
  34. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    Flex the wrist
  35. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • Flex the digits
    • Doesn't go all the way to the distal phalange
  36. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    • Flex the digits
    • Does go all the way to the distal phallange
  37. Palmaris Longus
    Weakly flexes the hand at the wrist joint
  38. Sartorius
    • Longest single muscle in the body
    • Allows you to sit cross-legged by twisting the thigh
    • From the illium to the medial side of the tibia
  39. Adductor Longus, Brevis, and Magnus
    • Huge, on medial portion of the thigh
    • Adduct and flex the thigh at the hip joint
  40. Gluteus Maximus, Medius, Minimus
    • Maximus: largest, heaviest, most superficial. Actions are critical for walking and standing.
    • Medius: mostly deep to the maximus. Abduct and medially rotate the femur - walking and running. 
    • Minimus: smallest and deep to medius. Similar functions to the medius.
  41. Biceps Femoris
    • Lateral thigh muscle of the hamstrings
    • Extend the hip and flex the knee
  42. Semitendinosus
    • Medial thigh muscle of the hamstrings
    • Extend the hip and flex the knee
  43. Semimembranosus
    • Medial thigh muscle of the hamstrings
    • Extend the hip and flex the knee
  44. Tibialis Anterior
    • Lateral surface of the tibia
    • Dorsiflexes the foot at the ankle joint and inverts the foot at the intertarsal joints
  45. Extensor Digitorum Longus
    Extends digits 2-5
  46. Extensor Hallucis Longus
    Extends digit 1 (big toe)
  47. Gastrocnemius
    • Posterior, prominence of the calf
    • Plantar flexes the foot
    • Flexes the leg at the knee joint
  48. Soleus
    • Deep to the gastrocnemius
    • Plantar flexes the foot
  49. Popliteus
    • Back of the knee
    • Flexes the knee joint and medially rotates the tibia
  50. Tibialis Posterior
    Deep to the soleus
  51. Flexor Digitorum Longus
    Flexes digits 2-5
  52. Flexor Hallucis Longus
    Flexes digit 1 (big toe)
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Anatomy 403 Lecture Exam 1 - Muscles
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