Communications ch.8

  1. Recent surveys confirm that the most  job skill you can obtain is 

    p. 148
    effective oral communication
  2. Public speaking is not just the actual presentation; it also requires preparation.  What information must be gathered... 

    • Information about your audience - often thru listening and interviewing
    • Collecting other forms of evidence and support
  3. Name the 7 elements of the Process of Public Speaking ( a model for speech preparation)

    p. 149 Fig 8.1
    • 1. Understanding your assignment & identifying our purpose
    • 2. Brainstorming a subject & select your topic
    • 3. Developing your thesis
    • 4. Conducting your research
    • 5. Preparing outlines & visual aids
    • 6. Practicing your speech
    • 7. Presenting your speech
  4. What is the general purpose of a speech?

    p. 152
    • 1. To entertain, inspire, or celebrate special occasions
    • 2. To inform
    • 3. To persuade
  5. Informative vs persuasive speeches

    p. 151
    Informative - speeches that instruct or assist the audience in gaining understanding

    Persuasive - speeches that stimulate an audience to reaffirm or alter beliefs or encourage the adoption of new behaviors or the continuation of past behaviors
  6. Characteristics of an informative speech

    p. 151 Table 8.1
    • 1. Intent of speech - to explain, define, demonstrate
    • 2. Topic - A process, concept, or activity
    • 3. Desired Audience Response - To understand
    • 4. Speaker's Role - Teacher
    • 5. Appeals - Mostly credibility and logic
  7. Characteristics of a persuasive speech

    p. 151 Table 8.1
    • 1. Intent of Speech - To alter belief or action, reinforce
    • 2. Topic - A proposition or claim
    • 3. Desired Audience Response - To believe or do
    • 4. Speaker's Role - Advocate
    • 5. Appeals - Credibility, logic, and emotion
  8. Why is it important to know the distinction between an informative speech and a persuasive speech?

    Because it helps you to envision your goal of giving either an informative or persuasive speech
  9. What is a purpose statement?

    • 1. "I want my audience to..." allows you to focus on what you want your audience to gain from your presentation
    • 2. Reminds you that public speaking is an interaction between the speaker and the audience
    • 3. Helps you consider how this statement relates to your intended audience
  10. Describe the template for writing specific purpose statements

    p.152 Fig 8.2
    Specific Purpose Statement = I want my audience to... + Informative or persuasive descriptor + Summary of the topic
  11. "Descriptors" for Special Occasion Speeches

    p.152 Table 8.2
    • Celebrate
    • Recognize
    • Remember
    • Enjoy
    • Laugh at
    • Reflect on
    • Dedicate

    Example - "I want my audience members to celebrate their success at ..."
  12. "Descriptors" for Informative  Speeches

    p.152 Table 8.2
    • Understand
    • Learn
    • Know
    • Comprehend
    • Appreciate
    • Absorb
    • Explain

    (teacher) Ex: " I want my audience to know that..."
  13. "Descriptors" for Persuasive Speeches

    p.152 Table 8.2
    • Believe
    • Agree
    • Begin to
    • Cease to
    • Choose to
    • Purchase 
    • Select
    • (advocate) Ex: I want my audience to agree that there are three solid reasons for...
  14. 2 ways to select a subject for your speech

    p. 153
    • Brainstorming
    • Audience perspective - characteristics of the audience
  15. Describing brainstorming when selecting a speech subject

    p. 153
    Allowing the thought process to flow freely
  16. Describe audience perspective when selecting a speech subject

    Considers the listeners' multiple characteristics and the resulting type of audience they comprise
  17. 4 Perspectives to consider in choosing a speech subject

    • 1. Audience persepctive
    • 2. Types of audiences
    • 3. The Personal Perspective
    • 4. Other Perspectives
  18. The audience characteristics include

    the group's demographics and psychological profiles
  19. What issues should be considered in analyzing your audience to help you select an appropriate subject and narrowed topic

    • Demographics
    • Psychological Profiles
    • Learning Styles
    • Audience Types
  20. When Analyzing Your Audience list the Audience Characteristics that fall under Demographics

    p.154 Table 8.3
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Ethnicity
    • Level of education
    • Physical ability level
    • Group memberships
  21. When Analyzing Your Audience list the audience Characteristics that fall under Phychological Profiles

    p.154 Table 8.3
    • Attitudes
    • Beliefs
    • Values
  22. When Analyzing Your Audience list the Audience Characteristics that fall under Learning Styles

    p.154 Table 8.3
    • Feelers
    • Watchers
    • Thinkers
    • Doers
  23. When Analyzing Your Audience list the Audience Types

    p.154 Table 8.3
    • Friendly
    • Neutral
    • Apathetic
    • Unsupportive
    • Opposed
  24. What are the 3 Basic Generational Differences classification categories 

    p. 155
    • 1. "Baby Boomers" (born 1943 - 1960, ages 44 to 61)
    • 2. Generation Xers (born 1960 to 1980, ages 24 to 44)
    • 3. Generation Next, or "Y" also called "Millennials" (born since 1980, ages 24 and younger
  25. Define beliefs

    p. 156
    Strongly held ideas about the nature of truth
  26. Define attitudes

    p. 156
    A favorable or negative inclination toward a person, place, event, or object
  27. If audience demographics (insight about your audience's values, beliefs, and attitudes) are unknown it is best to use various learning styles to motivate your audience like...

    • 1. anecdotes, examples, or stories that have an emotional quality
    • 2. Visuals to catch the attention of those who prefer to watch
    • 3. strong evidence such as facts, statistics, or expert testimony to appeal to those who prefer to think
    • 4. provide an activity for your audience to appeal to those who prefer hands-on learning
  28. The Personal Perspective of generating speech topics is described as

    • Considering your knowledge, attitudes, interests, experiences, and beliefs.
    • Select a subject that interests both you and your audience
  29. The Situational Perspective of generating speech topics is described as

    Focuses on the context of a speech in selecting a topic
  30. The Organizational Perspective of generating speech topics is described as

    Recognizes that speakers may represent an organization and, as a result, may need to be sensitive in choosing a subject
  31. The Practical Perspective of generating speech topics is described as

    Considers that availability of adequate, recent research materials and time limits for the preparation and presentation of a speech
  32. Describe speech "topic"

    1. 159
    The specific focus of a speech
  33. What helps me set the direction of my speech and stay on course?

    p. 160
    the general and specific purposes help to craft the topic even more clearly, although the essential topic remains the same.
  34. Thesis statement

    p. 161
    A single, declarative sentence that summarizes the essence of a speech
  35. Thesis

    p. 161
    • The central idea of a speech
    • Road map for your entire presentation
Card Set
Communications ch.8
chapter 8