define Developmental psychology
- The scientific study of age-related changes in our bodies, behaviour, thinking, emotions, social relationships and personalities
- It is the study of human development
Current focuses of Developmental psychology
- Increases in life expectancy
Who is attributed for the "original sin"
Augustine of Hippo
Describe the philosophy of "original sin"
- taught that all humans were born with a selfish and stubborn nature
- to reduce this humans must seek redemption by leading a disciplined life.
What was Rosseau accredited for?
What was John Locke accredited for?
The Blank Slate
Describe the philosophy of the Blank slate
- John locke claimed the mind of a child is a blank slate
- all differences amongst humans are due to experience, therefore suggests that adults can mould children into whatever they want
This theory suggests adults can mould their children into whatever the want
The Blank Slate
Describe the philosophy of Innate Goodness
- "all humans are naturally goof and seek out experiences that help the grow"
- rosseau believed that children only needed nurturing and protection to grow into their full potential
What was Charles Darwin's contribution to psychology?
he kept detailed records about the development of his own children called "Baby Biographies"
What did Hall & Gesell contribute to psychology?
- Hall: norms. Developmentalists should identify norms, the age at which developmental milestones are reached.
- Gesell: thought there was a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change called maturation
What did Piaget contribute to psychology?
- 4 stages of logical thinking
- the most influential theory to developmental psychology
Describe the 3 domains of psychology
Describe the 'physical' domain of psychology
- changes in size, shape, and characteristics of the body
- changes in how individuals sense and perceive the physical world (depth perception)
Describe the 'cognitive' domain of psychology
changes in thinking, memory, problem-solving and other intellectual skills
Describe the 'social' domain of psychology
includes changes in variables that are associated with the relationships of an individual to others
Issues with the Nature-nurture model
- vulnerabilities and resilient factors interact with each other and then the child's environment
- problem: the same environment can produce different effects (depending on the qualities the child brings to the interaction)
Define 'continuity' vs 'discontinuity'
- a quantitative change (a change in amount)
- a change in kind or type
Provide examples of universal change
genetically programmed changes such as crawling to walking, or skin of the face getting wrinkly
Define the influence _______ has on universal changes.
Social clock: a set of age norms that defines a sequence of life experiences that is considered normal in a given culture and that all individuals in that culture are expected to follow
a group of individuals who share the same historical experiences at the same times in their lives
within any culture, successive cohorts may have similar life experiences
Within a given culture, successive cohorts may experience different life experiences.
Define the sensitive period
a span of months or years during which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence
Developmental psychology uses the scientific method to achieve four goals
- human development from conception to death
What is a cross-sectional study?
where participants of different ages are studies at one time.
Name pros and cons for the cross-sectional study.
- pros: quick access to data about age differences
- cons: ignores individual differences
- ignores cohort effects
- no sequence to change
What is a longitudinal study?
participants in one group are studied several times over a long period
Name pros and cons for the longitudinal study
- pros: track developmental changes in individuals and groups
- cons: time consuming[might] apply to group involved in the studydifficult to maintain contactpractice effects on test taking
name a pro for sequential study designs
allows comparison of cohorts
Describe a weakness of naturalistic observation
- observer bias
How can scientists combat observational bias?
use 'blind' observers who don't know what the test is about
name principles of research ethics
- Protection from harm
- Inform of consent
- knowledge of the results
An exception to the ethics policy of confidentiality