Psych Chapter 4

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  1. Sensation vs. Perception
    sensation: processing of environmental info to brain from senses; triggers chemical responses from neurons--> action potential

    perception: process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information
  2. Psychophysics
    relationship between outside world and your experience in that world

    absolute threshold: minimal about of stimulus needed to detect stimulus

    difference threshold: minimal difference needed to notice a change in stimulus

    sensory adaptation: repeated/ constant stimulus decreases the number of sensory messages; can be dangerous

    Gate control theory of pain: little gate that allows or inhibits pain from entering the brain
  3. Two mechanisms control the gate
    input from other skin senses may take over pathways that pain impulses would have used

    the brain can close the gate by descending signals into the spinal cord
  4. Two theories of color vision
    trichomatic theory of color vision and opponent-process theory
  5. Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision
    • three different sized cones; combo of light allows color to be seen
    • long-wavelength cones (blue)
    • medium (green)
    • short (yellow/red)

    does not explain afterimage (seeing an object after looking away from it)
  6. Opponent-process theory
    three pairs of cones: red-green/ blue-yellow/ black-white

    one activated/ the other inhibited

    when you look away, the inhibited becomes activated, and the activated becomes inhibited
  7. Conduction deafness
    middle ear bones fuse and can't vibrate properly

    treatment: breaking bones, replacing with plastic ones, using hearing aids
  8. Nerve deafness
    damage to the hair cells (Organ of Corti) of the auditory nerve usually after intense vibrations from loud sounds

    hearing aids don't help

    once damaged, its for good

    today, cochlear implants are being done
  9. Which two senses go together?
    smell (olfaction) and taste (gustation)
  10. smell+ taste= __

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Psych Chapter 4
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