History Test 1

  1. Black Codes
    • Updated slave codes limiting black freedom
    • Developed by south when slave codes were outlawed
  2. Carpetbaggers
    Northern transplants in the southern states
  3. Compromise of 1877
    Put Hayes in the white house and gave Democrats control of the south
  4. Congressional Reconstruction
    Congress divided south into military districts
  5. Field Order #15
    Set aside vast amount of land for grants to settlers
  6. 15th Amendment
    Guaranteed right to vote for black citizens
  7. 14th Amendment
    Guaranteed equality under the law for all citizens
  8. Freedman's Buraeu
    Organization providing services for freed slaves
  9. KKK
    • Klu Klux Klan
    • Paramilitary black hate group
  10. Lost Cause
    Southern view of war as journey to salvation
  11. Redeemers
    "Holy wars" to save the south from norther industrialization and reconstruction
  12. Scalawags
    Native white southerners
  13. Sharecroppers
    • Workers care for land in return for room/board from owner
    • Usually tied into debt by land owner
    • Legal post-war slavery
  14. "Slaughterhouse" Cases
    Supreme court cases that contradicted the 14th Amendment
  15. Southern Homestead Act
    Gave blacks access to public land
  16. Tenure Office Acts
    Prohibited president from removing government office holders
  17. Union Leagues
    Northern republican party organizations
  18. United States v. Cruikshanks
    • Court ruled that Enforcement Act only applied to state
    • People could not violate the Act
  19. Atlanta Compromise
    Ideal for blacks to support themselves with help from whites
  20. Colored Farmers Alliance
    • Formed in Texas
    • Members were more tenants than land owners
  21. Disfranchisment
    Attempt to maintain black subservience
  22. Grandfather Clause
    • Right to vote if grandfather voted before 1867
    • Most blacks were slaves before this time
  23. Grange
    Joining of southern farmers to bring change
  24. Jim Crow Laws
    • Statutes of segregation
    • Legalized discrimination
  25. Lynchings
    • Occurred in South by mobs
    • Illegal killings of blacks
  26. NAACP
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    • Organization that pushed black rights
  27. Plessy v. Ferguson
    Maintained railroads that provide equal accommodations for all
  28. Poll Taxes
    • Required citizens to pay a tax to vote
    • Made to keep blacks from voting
  29. Populist Party
    Merge of alliances by leaders into a national political party
  30. Segregation
    Separation of blacks and whites
  31. Settlement House
    Promoted middle-class values in poor neighborhoods
  32. Solid South
    • Period of white democratic rule
    • 1900-1950s
  33. Southern Farmers Alliance
    Agricultural reform organization
  34. Sub-treasury Plan
    • Idea to keep cotton off the market until the price rose
    • To be kept in a sub-treasury, i.e. warehouse
  35. WCTU
    Women's Christian Temperance Union
  36. AFL
    • American Federation of Labor
    • Widely successful labor union
  37. Chain Migration
    Large number of people migrating at once/in rapid succession
  38. Collective Bargaining
    Negotiations to secure workplace concessions
  39. Gilded Age
    • Materialistic/money obsessed period in history
    • Focus was on big business; no care for workers
  40. Gospel of Wealth
    Theory that any intervention was of doubtful benefit to the poor
  41. Great Migration
    An explosion of immagrants
  42. Great Uprising
    Widespread/violent railroad strikes
  43. Horatio Alger stories
    • Character who went from rags to riches
    • Inspired many people to fight poverty
  44. Hull House
    First settlement house in the country
  45. Horizontal Integration
    Merge of competitors in the same industry
  46. Knights of Labor
    • Union crafted by workers in Philadelphia
    • Didn't believe in politics
    • Fell after the Haymarket Riot
  47. Molly Maguires
    Secret labor organization of Irish miners
  48. Nativism
    Anti-immigrant sentiment
  49. Pograms
    Violent attacks on Jewish settlements
  50. Social Darwinism
    • Human race evolves through competition
    • "Survival of the Fittest"
  51. Sweatshops
    Small, poorly ventilated work spaces for garment workers
  52. Tenements
    Poor urban apartments w/ poor ventilation & light
  53. Trusts
    Concentrations of industry w/ a few corporate monopolies
  54. Vertical Integration
    Consolidation of all functions of a particular industry
  55. Littlebig Horn
    Custer's defeats by the hands of the indians
  56. Chisholm Trail
    Cattle trail through Indian territory
  57. Dawes Act
    Divided tribal lands among individuals
  58. Homestead Act
    Gave 80 million acres to settlers
  59. Sandcreek Massacre
    Troops slaughtered Cheyenne Indians
  60. Treaty of Ft. Laramie
    U.S. abandoned Bozeman trail
  61. Wounded Knee Massacre
    Army used artillery on 200 Sioux
  62. Coxey's Army
    Group of unemployed workers that marched through the North East
  63. Farmer's Alliance
    Developed proposals to remedy credit/currency problem
  64. Free Silver
    Unlimited silver coinage
  65. Granger Laws
    Required regulations of railroad rates and the creation of grain lifts
  66. Greenback Party
    Called for labor reform/currency inflation
  67. Interstate Commerce Act
    Prohibits rebates, discriminatory rates, and pooling
  68. Interstate Commerce Commission
    Investigates/prosecutes violations of the Interstate Commerce Commissions
  69. Leissez-Faire
    Idea of government staying out of the dealings of corporations
  70. Mugwumps
    Small groups devoted to an honest/efficient government
  71. NAWSA
    National American Women's Suffrage Associations
  72. Omaha Platform
    National party that revealed leizzes-faire
  73. PCSA
    • Pendleton Civil Service Act
    • Prohibits federal employees from accepting political contributions
  74. Prohibition Party
    Persistently called for abolition of alcohol
  75. Sherman Anti-trust Act
    Prohibited combination in trade restraint
  76. Sound Money
    Limiting money supply
  77. Dollar Diplomacy
    Substitutes dollars for bullets
  78. Gentlemen's Agreement
    Agreement to deny passports to Japanese immigrants
  79. Imperialism
    The idea to build an overseas empire
  80. Mahanism
    Idea to cast aside isolationist policy
  81. Open Door
    Policy of trade w/ other countries
  82. Pan American Union
    Helped promote hemisphere understanding/cooperation
  83. Platt Amendment
    Restricted Cuban autonomy
  84. Roosevelt Corollary
    To keep chronic wrongdoing
  85. Sphere of Influence
    Area that major powers competed for
  86. Teller Amendment
    Disclaimed thoughts of self-wrongdoing Cubans
  87. Yellow Press
    • Bold headlines/exaggerated stories
    • Designed to rally people for war with Spain
Card Set
History Test 1
Terms for Test 1