Consumer Behavior

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  1. Need
    • A basic biological motive
    • Need = I'm thirsty
  2. Consumer Behavior
    The study of the process involved when individuals or groups 1) select, 2) purchase, 3) use, or 4) dispose of 1) products, 2) ideas, or 3) services
  3. Demographic Segmentation
    Segmenting consumers into a target market using statistics that measure observable aspects of population (age, gender, family structure, social class, income, race, ethnicity, etc.)
  4. Psychographic Segmentation
    Segmenting consumers into a target market using lifestyles, interests, traits, and values such as: the way we feel about ourselves, the way we value things, the things we do in our spare time
  5. Criticisms of Marketing
    • Subliminal - signal or message designed to pass below the normal limits or perception to the subconscious mind
    • Promising miracles -- Advertising does not know enough about people to manipulate them
  6. Micro vs. Macro Consumer Behavior
    • Micro -- Individual focusĀ 
    • Macro -- Social focus, large scale
  7. Perception
    Process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted
  8. Sensation
    Immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to basic stimuli (light, color, sound, odor, and texture)
  9. Stages of Perception
    • 1) Sense the exposure to the stimuli
    • 2) Attend to the stimuli
    • 3) Interpret the stimuli
  10. Trade Dress
    Colors that are associated with specific companies (i.e. McDonalds and red and yellow)
  11. Haptic Orientation
    "Touch" senses affect product experience and judgement, first sense we learn before vision and smell
  12. Differential Threshold
    • Ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two things (perceiving contrasts; i.e. "Just noticeable difference, the extra amount of noise before you notice)
    • -Gradual changing of the Coke bottles over time
  13. Adaptation
    • -Degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time
    • -Occurs when people no longer pay attention to a stimulus because it becomes so familiar
  14. Gestalt Psychology
    • -We interpret from totality of stimuli
    • -Similarity -- People group objects together that share similar physical characteristics
    • -Figure-ground -- one part of the stimulus will dominate (the figure) and other parts will recede into the background (ground)
  15. Learning
    Relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience
  16. Behavioral learning
    • -Assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events (focus on stimuli and responses; black box theory -- we don't understand what happens in the mind)
    • -Classical conditioning -- Dog and bell. Unconditioned stimulus that naturally elicits a response is paired with one that does not naturally elicit the same response. In the end, the second stimulus elicits the first response without the pairing
    • -Instrumental conditioning -- Operant conditioning, individuals learn behaviors that produce a positive outcome and avoid those that yield a negative response
  17. Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement
    • Positive -- occurs if a reward follows a response, so we do the same response
    • Negative -- occurs when people learn to have a response that avoids punishment
  18. Cognitive learning
    • -Learning is a series of mental processes
    • -Observational learning -- Watching others and modeling their behavior
    • -1) Attention, 2) Retention - remembering and retaining behavior to memory, 3) Production, 4) Motivation to perform behavior
  19. Memory
    Acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed
  20. Motivation
    • -The process that leads people to behave as they do
    • -Occurs when a need is aroused
  21. Goal
    -Desired end state
  22. Expectancy Theory
    Behavior is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes rather than being pushed from within
  23. Biogenic Need
    -Basic human needs, food, air, water shelter
  24. Involvement
    -Perceived relevance of an object based on one's needs, values, and interests
  25. Terminal Values
    Desired end states, to be strong, to have a happy family
  26. Materialism
    • -The importance people attach to worldly possessions
    • -Value possessions for their own status and appearance
  27. Hedonic vs. Utilitarian
    • -Hedonic -- shopping for the pleasure of it
    • -Utilitarian -- shopping of the purpose of utility
  28. Differential Conflicts
    • -Approach-Approach -- Two desirable alternatives, win-win
    • -Approach-Avoidance -- desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time, win-lose
    • -Avoidance-Avoidance -- two undesirable alternatives, lose-lose
  29. Maslow's Hierarchy
    • -Lower-level tends to focus on basic human needs
    • -Higher up on the pyramid focuses more on self-fulfillment and actualization
  30. Self Esteem
    • -The positivity of a person's self-concept
    • -Low Self esteem - think that they will not perform well
    • -High self esteem - think they will be successful and will take risks
    • -Self esteem advertising - products provide remedy to low self-esteem
  31. Ideal Self
    Our conception of how we would like to be
  32. Impression Management
    We work to "manage" what others think of us
  33. Identity Marketing
    Consumers alter some aspects of their selves to advertise for a branded product
  34. Self-Image Congruence
    • -Choosing products when attributes match the self
    • -Buying a hybrid, it's environmentally conscious for those who care about the environment
  35. Extended Self
    External objects that we consider part of us
  36. Sex Typed Products
    • -Products that take on masculine or feminine attributes
    • -Bob the Builder, Barbie
  37. Metrosexual Identity
    Straight, urban male who exhibits strong interests and knowledge that run counter to traditional male sex roles
  38. Body Cathexis
    Person's FEELINGS about his or her body
  39. Communal vs. Agentic Goals
    • -Communal -- women are taught to foster harmonious relationships
    • -Agentic - men are expected to be assertive
Card Set
Consumer Behavior
Consumer Behavior Exam 1
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