Surgery: Cardio, Resp, Anesthesia

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  1. Functions of the cardiovascular system
    • 1) Carry O2 and nutrients
    • 2) Remove waste
    • 3) Maintain homeostasis
  2. Flow of blood!
    Cranial and Caudal Vena Cava – Right Auricle –Right Atrium– Tricuspid Valve – Right Ventricle – Pulmonary Valve – Pulmonary Artery – Lungs – Pulmonary Vein – Left Auricle – Left Atrium – Mitral Valve – Left Ventricle –Aortic Valve- Aorta – Great Arteries –Arteries - Arterioles – Capillaries – Venules – Veins – Vena Cavas
  3. Valve fails to close completely
  4. If a valve fails to close completely permitting blood to flow backwards in the wrong direction
    Valvular insufficiency
  5. Any interruption of impulse pathway. (A-V Bundle most common)
    Heart block
  6. P-R Segment
    Filling time for ventricle
  7. S-T Segment
    Filling time for atrium
  8. Difference between the work capability at rest and that during maximum physical exertion
    Cardiac reserve
  9. 02 available to tissues is dependent on 2 things
    • 1) Cardiac output
    • 2) Amount of O2 extracted from blood
  10. Blood Pressure on the arterial side of the heart is maintained by
    • 1) Cardiac Output
    • 2) Peripheral Vascular Resistance
  11. Humoral agents that regulate arterial pressure and cardiac output
    • 1) Renin
    • 2) Atrial Natriuretic Peptides
  12. Released from the atria of the heart in response to increases in blood volume and atrial filling
    Atrial Natriuretic Peptides
  13. Paracrine agents that regulate arterial pressure and cardiac output
    • 1) Nitric oxide
    • 2) Endothelin
  14. 2 types of capillaries
    • 1) Arterio-venous capillaries AKA thorough-fare
    • 2) Secondary capillaries AKA true
  15. Blood flow is continuous and is controlled by sphincters in the arterioles and along the capillary wall
    Thorough-fare capillaries
  16. No muscle here – so the changing pattern of flow is produced by tissue needs and pressure gradients as in passive diffusion
    True capillaries
  17. Venous return controlled by
    • 1) Inspiration 
    • 2) Venous contraction
    • 3) Valves
    • 4) Heart beat
    • 5) Muscular activity
  18. Secrete acetylcholine
  19. Secrete nor-epinephrine
  20. All pre-ganglionic neurons are ___ in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous of the autonomic system
  21. All of the postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic system are ____
  22. Most of the postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic system are ____
  23. Explains that some postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic system are cholinergic (release acetylcholine at their termination).
    Grey Rami
  24. Acetylcholine activates two different types of receptors
    Muscarinic and nicotinic
  25. Found in all effector cells stimulated by the postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system
    Muscarinic receptors
  26. Found in the synapses between the pre- and postganglionic neurons of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
    Nicotinic receptors
  27. 2 types of adrenergic receptors
    • 1) Alpha receptors
    • 2) Beta receptors
  28. Norepinephrine and epinephrine secreted by what?
    Adrenal medulla
  29. Epinephrine excites what
    Both alpha and beta receptors
  30. Nor-epinephrine excites what
    Alpha receptors
  31. Catecholamines (5)
    • 1) Epinephrine
    • 2) Nor-epinephrine  
    • 3) L-dopa
    • 4) Dopamine
    • 5) Dopaminogenic
  32. Catecholamines originate where
    Adrenal medulla of adrenal gland
  33. Catecholamines produce two effects:
    Constriction and Dilatation
  34. Basically stimulatory with the exception of those in the intestinal smooth muscle
    Alpha 1 and 2 receptors
  35. Inhibitory with the exception of those in cardiac muscle
    Beta 1 and 2 receptors
  36. Shock is
    Reduced cardiac output and vasodilatation.
  37. What determines the level of blood pressure in the vascular system?
    Cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance
  38. Degrees of shock
    • 1) Compensatory phase
    • 2) Progressive phase 
    • 3) irreversible phase
  39. Phase of shock arterioles except coronary and cerebral vessels constrict to maintain arterial pressure.Elevation of pulse & increase in cardiac output.
    Compensatory phase
  40. Phase of shock where heart cannot pump sufficiently due to fatigue. Decrease cardiac output and 02 to the alveoli & respiratory center causing vasodilatation.
    Progressive phase
  41. Phase of shock where no treatment is effective as the heart is irreparable
    Irreversible phase
  42. Treatment of shock
    • 1) Fluids
    • 2) Corticosteroids 
    • 3) Warm the body
Card Set
Surgery: Cardio, Resp, Anesthesia
Cardio Respiration and anesthesia
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