rAD pROTECTIONMinimizing patient exposure

  1. Which of the following projections is most likely to deliver the largest dose to the ovaries?



    A
     
    AP lumbar spine, 7 × 17 in. cassette, 80 kVp 


    B
     
    AP lumbar spine, 14 × 17 in. cassette, 80 kVp 


    C
     
    AP abdomen, 80 kVp 


    D
     
    AP abdomen, 70 kVp
    B
  2. Which of the following will reduce patient dose during fluoroscopy?















    1. Decreasing the source-skin distance (SSD)
    2. Using 2.5 mm Al filtration
    3. Restricting tabletop intensity to less than 10 R/min





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  3. Which of the following is (are) likely to improve image quality and decrease patient dose?

    1. Beam restriction

    2. Low kilovolt and high milliampere- second factors

    3. Grids





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 3 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  4. If a patient received 0.9 rad during a 3-minute fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?



    A
     
    3 mrad/min 


    B
     
    30 mrad/min 


    C
     
    300 mrad/min 


    D
     
    3,000 mrad/min
    C
  5. The interaction illustrated in Figure 3–5

    1. can pose a safety hazard to personnel

    2. can have a negative impact on image quality

    3. occurs with low-energy incident photons



    Image Upload 1





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  6. Which of the following result(s) from restriction of the x-ray beam?

    1. Less scattered radiation production

    2. Less patient hazard

    3. Less radiographic contrast





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  7. Classify the following tissues in order of increasing radiosensitivity

    1. Liver cells

    2. Intestinal crypt cells

    3. Muscle cells





    A
     
    1, 3, 2 


    B
     
    2, 3, 1 


    C
     
    2, 1, 3 


    D
     
    3, 1, 2
    D
  8. Which one of the following is (are) used to control the production of scattered radiation?

    1. Collimators

    2. Optimal kV

    3. Use of grids





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  9. It is essential to question female patients of childbearing age regarding the

    1. date of their last menstrual period

    2. possibility of their being pregnant

    3. number of x-ray examinations they have had in the past 12 months





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  10. If the exposure rate to an individual standing 2.0 m from a source of radiation is 15 R/min, what will be the dose received after 2 minutes at a distance of 5 m from the source?



    A
     
    1.2 R 


    B
     
    2.4 R 


    C
     
    4.8 R 


    D
     
    9.6 R
    C
  11. From which of the following primary beam sizes, all other factors remaining constant, will the greatest radiation exposure result?



    A
     
    8 × 10 


    B
     
    10 × 12 


    C
     
    11 × 14 


    D
     
    14 × 17
    d
  12. Patient dose increases as fluoroscopic



    A
     
    FOV increases 


    B
     
    FOV decreases 


    C
     
    FSS increases 


    D
     
    FSS decreases
    B
  13. If a patient received 2000 mrad during a 10-minute fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?



    A
     
    0.2 rad/min 


    B
     
    2.0 rad/min 


    C
     
    5 rad/min 


    D
     
    200 rad/min
    A
  14. Which of the following methods can be used to reduce radiation exposure to a recently fertilized ovum?

    1. Elective booking

    2. Patient questionnaire

    3. The 10-day rule





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  15. The interaction between x-ray photons and tissue that is responsible for radiographic contrast but that also contributes significantly to patient dose is



    A
     
    the photoelectric effect 


    B
     
    Compton scatter 


    C
     
    coherent scatter 


    D
     
    pair production
    A
  16. What is the approximate entrance skin exposure (ESE) for the average anteroposterior (AP) supine abdomen radiograph?



    A
     
    300 rad 


    B
     
    300 mrad 


    C
     
    35 rad 


    D
     
    35 mrad
    B
  17. A fluoroscopic examination requires 3 minutes of exposure on time. If the exposure rate for the examination is 250 mR/hr, what is the approximate exposure for the three minute procedure?



    A
     
    83.3 R 


    B
     
    83.3 mR 


    C
     
    12.5 R 


    D
     
    12.5 mR
    D
  18. An increase of 1.0 mm added aluminum filtration of the x-ray beam would have which of the following effects?

    1. Increase in average energy of the beam

    2. Increase in patient skin dose

    3. Increase in milliroentgen output





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  19. For radiographic examinations of the skull, it is generally preferred that the skull be examined in the



    A
     
    AP projection 


    B
     
    PA projection 


    C
     
    recumbent position 


    D
     
    supine position
  20. B
    •  
    • PA projection
  21. Which of the following most effectively minimizes radiation exposure to the patient?



    A
     
    Small focal spot 


    B
     
    Low-ratio grids 


    C
     
    Increased SID 


    D
     
    High-speed intensifying screens
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • High-speed intensifying screens
  22. he focal spot-to-table distance, in mobile fluoroscopy, must be



    A
     
    a minimum of 15 inches. 


    B
     
    a maximum of 15 inches. 


    C
     
    a minimum of 12 inches. 


    D
     
    a maximum of 12 inches.
    •  
    • C
    •  
    • a minimum of 12 inches.
  23. Filters used in radiographic x-ray tubes generally are composed of



    A
     
    aluminum 


    B
     
    copper 


    C
     
    tin 


    D
     
    lead
    • A
    •  
    • aluminum
  24. Which of the following terms is correctly used to describe x-ray beam quality?



    A
     
    mA 


    B
     
    HVL 


    C
     
    Intensity 


    D
     
    Dose rate
    • B
    •  
    • HVL
  25. Patient exposure can be minimized by using which of the following?















    1. Accurate positioning
    2. High-kV, low-mAs factors
    3. Rare earth screens





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    • D
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  26. If a patient received 1,400 mrad during a 7-minute fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?



    A
     
    200 rad/min 


    B
     
    5 rad/min 


    C
     
    2.0 rad/min 


    D
     
    0.2 rad/min
    D
  27. All the following have an effect on patient dose except



    A
     
    kilovoltage 


    B
     
    milliampere-seconds 


    C
     
    focal spot size 


    D
     
    inherent filtration
    • C
    •  
    • focal spot size
  28. Patient dose during fluoroscopy is affected by the

    1. distance between the patient and the input phosphor

    2. amount of magnification

    3. tissue density





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    3 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  29. Aluminum filtration has its greatest effect on



    A
     
    low-energy x-ray photons 


    B
     
    high-energy x-ray photons 


    C
     
    low-energy scattered photons 


    D
     
    high-energy scattered photons
    • Image Upload 2
    •  
    • A
    •  
    • low-energy x-ray photons
  30. Which of the following is (are) associated with Compton scattering?















    1. High-energy incident photons
    2. Outer-shell electrons
    3. Characteristic radiation





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • B
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only
  31. Which of the following would be the safest interval of time for a fertile woman to undergo abdominal radiography without significant concern for irradiating a recently fertilized ovum?



    A
     
    The first 10 days following the cessation of menstruation 


    B
     
    The first 10 days following the onset of menstruation 


    C
     
    The 10 days preceding the onset of menstruation 


    D
     
    About 14 days before menstruation
    • B
    •  
    • The first 10 days following the onset of menstruation
  32. What is the approximate ESE for the average upright PA chest radiograph using 115 kVp and a grid?



    A
     
    20 rad 


    B
     
    20 mrad 


    C
     
    200 rad 


    D
     
    200 mrad
    •  
    • B
    •  
    • 20 mrad
  33. The advantages of beam restriction include which of the following?

    1. Less scattered radiation is produced.

    2. Less biologic material is irradiated.

    3. Less total filtration will be necessary.





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    • B
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only
  34. The SSD in mobile fluoroscopy must be



    A
     
    a minimum of 15 in. 


    B
     
    a maximum of 15 in. 


    C
     
    a minimum of 12 in. 


    D
     
    a maximum of 12 in.
    •  
    • C
    •  
    • a minimum of 12 in.
  35. Types of structural damage to a DNA molecule by ionizing radiation include which of the following?

    1. single-side-rail scission

    2. double-side-rail scission

    3. cross-linking





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 2 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  36. Which of the following functions to protect the x-ray tube and the patient from overexposure in the event that the phototimer fails to terminate an exposure?



    A
     
    Circuit breaker 


    B
     
    Fuse 


    C
     
    Backup timer 


    D
     
    Rheostat
    • C
    •  
    • Backup timer
  37. Inherent and added filtration in the x-ray tube functions to



    A
     
    reduce patient skin dose. 


    B
     
    shorten the scale of contrast. 


    C
     
    reduce scattered radiation. 


    D
     
    soften the x-ray beam.
    •  
    • A
    •  
    • reduce patient skin dose.
  38. Which of the following would be most likely to cause the greatest skin dose (ESE)?



    A
     
    Short SID 


    B
     
    High kilovoltage 


    C
     
    Increased filtration 


    D
     
    Increased milliamperage
    • A
    •  
    • Short SID
  39. Which of the following groups of exposure factors would deliver the lowestpatient dose?



    A
     
    2.5 mAs, 100 kVp, 400-speed screens 


    B
     
    10 mAs, 90 kVp, 200-speed screens 


    C
     
    10 mAs, 70 kVp, 800-speed screens 


    D
     
    10 mAs, 80 kVp, 400-speed screens
    •  
    • A
    •  
    • 2.5 mAs, 100 kVp, 400-speed screens
  40. When an image intensifier's magnification mode is used,















    1. output screen gain is increased.
    2. resolution increases.
    3. patient dose increases.





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    • C
    •  
    • 2 and 3 only
  41. What quantity of radiation exposure to the reproductive organs is required to cause temporary infertility?



    A
     
    100 rad 


    B
     
    200 rad 


    C
     
    300 rad 


    D
     
    400 rad
    •  
    • B
    •  
    • 200 rad
  42. Which of the following groups of exposure factors will deliver the least patient dose?



    A
     
    300 mA, 250 ms, 70 kVp 


    B
     
    300 mA, 125 ms, 80 kVp 


    C
     
    400 mA, 90 ms, 80 kVp 


    D
     
    600 mA, 30 ms, 90 kVp
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • 600 mA, 30 ms, 90 kVp
  43. The primary function of filtration is to reduce



    A
     
    patient skin dose 


    B
     
    operator dose 


    C
     
    image noise 


    D
     
    scattered radiation
  44. A
    •  
    • patient skin dose
  45. If a patient received 2000 mrad during a 10-minute fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?



    A
     
    0.02 rad/min 


    B
     
    0.2 rad/min 


    C
     
    2.0 rad/min 


    D
     
    20 rad/min
    • B
    •  
    • 0.2 rad/min
  46. How many HVLs are required to reduce the intensity of a beam of monoenergetic photons to less than 15% of its original value?



    A
     



    B
     



    C
     



    D
     
    5
  47. B
    •  
    • 3
  48. How does filtration affect the primary beam?



    A
     
    It increases the average energy of the primary beam. 


    B
     
    It decreases the average energy of the primary beam. 


    C
     
    It makes the primary beam more penetrating. 


    D
     
    It increases the intensity of the primary beam.
    •  
    • A
    •  
    • It increases the average energy of the primary beam.
  49. It is necessary to question a female patient of childbearing age regarding her

    1. date of last menstrual period

    2. possibility of being pregnant

    3. age at her first pregnancy





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 3 only 


    D
     
    2 and 3 only
    •  
    • B
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only
  50. Which of the following will increase patient dose during fluoroscopy?

    1. Decreasing the SSD

    2. Using 2.5 mm Al filtration

    3. Restricting tabletop intensity to less than 10 R/min





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • A
    •  
    • 1 only
  51. Which of the following is most likely to result in the greatest increase in patient exposure?



    A
     
    Changing from a 400 speed system to a 200 speed system 


    B
     
    Increasing kVp 15% and cutting mAs in half 


    C
     
    Using two tomographic cuts instead of two plain images 


    D
     
    From nongrid technique to 8:1 grid
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • From nongrid technique to 8:1 grid
  52. Which of the following groups of exposure factors will deliver the leastamount of exposure to the patient?



    A
     
    400 mA, 0.25 second, 100 kVp 


    B
     
    600 mA, 0.33 second, 90 kVp 


    C
     
    800 mA, 0.5 second, 80 kVp 


    D
     
    800 mA, 1.0 second, 70 kVp
    •  
    • A
    •  
    • 400 mA, 0.25 second, 100 kVp
  53. The measure of the rate at which energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue is termed



    A
     
    the characteristic effect 


    B
     
    Compton scatter 


    C
     
    linear energy transfer 


    D
     
    the photoelectric effect
    • C
    •  
    • linear energy transfer
  54. The most efficient type of male gonadal shielding for use during fluoroscopy is



    A
     
    flat contact 


    B
     
    shaped contact (contour) 


    C
     
    shadow 


    D
     
    cylindrical
    • Image Upload 3
    •  
    • B
    •  
    • shaped contact (contour)
  55. A test radiograph like the one pictured in Figure A would be made by the radiation safety officer (RSO) or equipment service person and is used to evaluate
    Image Upload 4
    Figure A. Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology




    A
     
    focal spot size. 


    B
     
    linearity. 


    C
     
    collimator alignment. 


    D
     
    spatial resolution.
    • Image Upload 5
    •  
    • C
    •  
    • collimator alignment.
  56. What is the approximate entrance skin exposure (ESE) for the average AP supine lumbar spine radiograph?



    A
     
    350 rad 


    B
     
    350 mrad 


    C
     
    35 rad 


    D
     
    35 mrad
    • Image Upload 6
    •  
    • B
    •  
    • 350 mrad
  57. With milliamperes (mA) increased to maintain output intensity, how is the ESE affected as the source-to-skin distance (SSD) is increased?



    A
     
    The ESE increases. 


    B
     
    The ESE decreases. 


    C
     
    The ESE remains unchanged. 


    D
     
    ESE is unrelated to SSD.
    •  
    • B
    •  
    • The ESE decreases.
  58. Which of the following is most likely to permit the greatest decrease in patient exposure?



    A
     
    Changing from a 200-speed system to a 400-speed system 


    B
     
    Increasing kilovoltage by 15% and cutting the milliampere-seconds value in half 


    C
     
    Changing collimation from 10 × 12 to 14 × 17 


    D
     
    Changing from an 8:1 grid technique to nongrid
    • Image Upload 7
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • Changing from an 8:1 grid technique to nongrid
  59. Moving the image intensifier closer to the patient during traditional fluoroscopy

    1. decreases the SID

    2. decreases patient dose

    3. improves image quality





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    • D
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  60. Radiation safety requirements for fluoroscopic equipment include the following:















    1. SSD at least 38 cm on stationary (fixed) equipment.
    2. SSD at least 30 cm on mobile equipment.
    3. high level/boost mode must have continuous audible signal.





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    • Image Upload 8
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  61. If the exposure rate to an individual standing 4.0 m from a source of radiation is 10 mR/h, what will be the dose received after 20 minutes at a distance of 6 m from the source?



    A
     
    22.5 mR 


    B
     
    7.5 mR 


    C
     
    4.44 mR 


    D
     
    1.48 mR
    • Image Upload 9
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • 1.48 mR
  62. When the collimated field must extend past the edge of the body, allowing primary radiation to strike the tabletop, as in a lateral lumbar spine radiograph, what may be done to prevent excessive radiographic density owing to undercutting?



    A
     
    Reduce the milliampere-seconds. 


    B
     
    Reduce the kilovoltage. 


    C
     
    Use a shorter SID. 


    D
     
    Use lead rubber to absorb tabletop primary radiation.
    • Image Upload 10
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • Use lead rubber to absorb tabletop primary radiation.
  63. Which of the following is (are) important for patient protection during fluoroscopic procedures?















    1. Intermittent fluoroscopy
    2. Fluoroscopic field size
    3. Focus-to-table distance





    A
     
    1 and 2 only 


    B
     
    1 and 3 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    • Image Upload 11
    •  
    • D
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  64. A minimum total amount of aluminum filtration (inherent plus added) of 2.5 mm is required in equipment operated



    A
     
    above 50 kVp 


    B
     
    above 60 kVp 


    C
     
    above 70 kVp 


    D
     
    above 80 kVp
    •  
    • C
    •  
    • above 70 kVp
  65. The primary function of filtration is to reduce



    A
     
    patient skin dose. 


    B
     
    operator dose. 


    C
     
    image noise. 


    D
     
    scattered radiation.
    • Image Upload 12
    •  
    • A
    •  
    • patient skin dose.
  66. Which of the following safeguards is (are) taken to prevent inadvertent irradiation in early pregnancy?

    1. Patient postings

    2. Patient questionnaire

    3. Elective booking





    A
     
    1 and 2 only 


    B
     
    1 and 3 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    • D
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
Author
Anonymous
ID
294806
Card Set
rAD pROTECTIONMinimizing patient exposure
Description
Minimizing patient exposure
Updated