Radiation Protection Biological aspects of radiation

  1. The interaction between x-ray photons and matter pictured in Figure A is associated with
    Image Upload 1
    Figure A.















    1. high-energy x-ray photons.
    2. ionization.
    3. characteristic radiation.





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 3 only 


    D
     
    2 and 3 only
    D
  2. The skin response to radiation exposure, which appears as reddening of the irradiated skin area, is known as



    A
     
    dry desquamation 


    B
     
    moist desquamation 


    C
     
    erythema 


    D
     
    epilation
    C
  3. The dose–response curve that appears to be valid for genetic and some somatic effects is the

    1. linear

    2. nonlinear

    3. nonthreshold





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 3 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  4. Late effects of radiation, whose incidence is dose related and for which there is no threshold dose, are referred to as



    A
     
    nonstochastic 


    B
     
    stochastic 


    C
     
    chromosomal aberration 


    D
     
    hematologic depression
    B
  5. The skin response to radiation exposure that appears as hair loss is known as



    A
     
    dry desquamation 


    B
     
    moist desquamation 


    C
     
    erythema 


    D
     
    epilation
    D
  6. Examples of stochastic effects of radiation exposure include

    1. radiation-induced malignancy

    2. genetic effects

    3. leukemia





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  7. What is used to account for the differences in tissue sensitivity to ionizing radiation when determining effective dose E?

    1. Tissue weighting factors (W )

    2. Radiation weighting factors (W )

    3. Absorbed dose





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  8. The effects of radiation on biologic material depend on several factors. If a quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a long period of time, the effect



    A
     
    will be greater than if it is delivered all at one time 


    B
     
    will be less than if it is delivered all at one time 


    C
     
    has no relation to how it is delivered in time 


    D
     
    solely depends on the radiation quality
    B
  9. Which of the following cell types has the greatest radiosensitivity?



    A
     
    Nerve cells 


    B
     
    Muscle cells 


    C
     
    Spermatids 


    D
     
    Lymphocytes
    D
  10. Late radiation-induced somatic effects include

    1. thyroid cancers

    2. cataractogenesis

    3. skin cancers





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  11. Which of the following factors can affect the amount or the nature of radiation damage to biologic tissue?

    1. Radiation quality

    2. Absorbed dose

    3. Size of irradiated area





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 2 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  12. The effects of radiation on biologic material depend on several factors. If a large quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a short period of time, the effect



    A
     
    will be greater than if it were delivered in increments 


    B
     
    will be less than if it were delivered in increments 


    C
     
    has no relation to how it is delivered in time 


    D
     
    solely depends on the radiation quality
    A
  13. What is the relationship between LET and RBE?



    A
     
    As LET increases, RBE increases. 


    B
     
    As LET increases, RBE decreases. 


    C
     
    As LET decreases, RBE increases. 


    D
     
    There is no direct relationship between LET and RBE.
    A
  14. Which interaction between ionizing radiation and the target molecule involves formation of a free radical?



    A
     
    Direct effect 


    B
     
    Indirect effect 


    C
     
    Target effect 


    D
     
    Random effect
    B
  15. The principal late effects of ionizing radiation on humans include

    1. local tissue damage

    2. genetic effects

    3. malignant disease





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  16. Which of the following dose-response curve characteristics represent genetic and some somatic responses to radiation?















    1. Linear
    2. Nonthreshold
    3. Sigmoidal





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  17. How do fractionation and protraction affect radiation dose effects?

    1. They reduce the effect of radiation exposure.

    2. They permit cellular repair.

    3. They allow tissue recovery.





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  18. Which type of dose–response relationship represents radiation-induced leukemia and genetic effects?



    A
     
    Linear, threshold 


    B
     
    Nonlinear, threshold 


    C
     
    Linear, nonthreshold 


    D
     
    Nonlinear, nonthreshold
    C
  19. Factors that contribute to the amount of scattered radiation produced include

    1. radiation quality

    2. field size

    3. grid ratio





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  20. The x-ray interaction with matter that is responsible for the majority of scattered radiation reaching the image receptor (IR) is



    A
     
    the photoelectric effect 


    B
     
    Compton scatter 


    C
     
    classical scatter 


    D
     
    Thompson scatter
    B
  21. Which of the following radiation-induced conditions is most likely to have thelongest latent period?



    A
     
    Leukemia 


    B
     
    Temporary infertility 


    C
     
    Erythema 


    D
     
    Acute radiation lethality
    A
  22. Which of the following tissues or organs is the most radiosensitive?



    A
     
    Rectum 


    B
     
    Esophagus 


    C
     
    Small bowel 


    D
     
    Central nervous system (CNS)
    C
  23. In the production of Bremsstrahlung radiation



    A
     
    the incident photon ejects an inner-shell tungsten electron 


    B
     
    the incident photon is deflected, with resulting energy loss 


    C
     
    the incident electron ejects an inner-shell tungsten electron 


    D
     
    the incident electron is deflected, with resulting energy loss
    D
  24. What is (are) the major effect(s) of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) irradiation?

    1. Malignant disease

    2. Chromosome aberration

    3. Cell death





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  25. Which of the following cell types has the greatest radiosensitivity in the adult human?



    A
     
    Nerve cells 


    B
     
    Muscle cells 


    C
     
    Spermatids 


    D
     
    Lymphocytes
    D
  26. Which of the following interactions between x-ray photons and matter ismost responsible for patient dose?



    A
     
    The photoelectric effect 


    B
     
    Compton scatter 


    C
     
    Classic scatter 


    D
     
    Thompson scatter
    A
  27. Which of the following statements regarding the human gonadal cells is (are) true?

    1. The female oogonia reproduce only during fetal life.

    2. The male spermatogonia reproduce continuously.

    3. Both male and female stem cells reproduce only during fetal life.





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 2 only 


    D
     
    3 only
    C
  28. What is the term used to describe x-ray photon interaction with matter and the transference of part of the photon's energy to matter?



    A
     
    Absorption 


    B
     
    Scattering 


    C
     
    Attenuation 


    D
     
    Divergence
    B
  29. Which of the following contributes most to patient dose?



    A
     
    The photoelectric effect 


    B
     
    Compton scatter 


    C
     
    Classical scatter 


    D
     
    Thompson scatter
    BA
  30. Diagnostic x-radiation may be correctly described as



    A
     
    low energy, low LET 


    B
     
    low energy, high LET 


    C
     
    high energy, low LET 


    D
     
    high energy, high LET
    A
  31. Which of the following expresses the gonadal dose that, if received by every member of the population, would be expected to produce the same total genetic effect on that population as the actual doses received by each of the individuals?



    A
     
    Genetically significant dose 


    B
     
    Somatically significant dose 


    C
     
    Maximum permissible dose 


    D
     
    Lethal dose
    A
  32. Which of the following radiation exposure responses exhibit a nonlinear threshold dose-response relationship?















    1. Skin erythema
    2. Hematologic depression
    3. Lethality





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  33. Which of the following types of adult tissue is (are) comparatively insensitive to effects of ionizing radiation?

    1. Epithelial tissue

    2. Nerve tissue

    3. Muscle tissue





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  34. Which of the following types of radiation is (are) considered electromagnetic?

    1. X-ray

    2. Gamma

    3. Beta





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  35. All the following radiation-exposure responses exhibit a nonlinear threshold dose–response relationship except



    A
     
    skin erythema 


    B
     
    hematologic depression 


    C
     
    radiation lethality 


    D
     
    leukemia
    D
  36. If 600 rad or more is received as a whole-body dose in a short period of time, certain symptoms will occur; these are referred to as



    A
     
    short-term effects. 


    B
     
    long-term effects. 


    C
     
    lethal dose. 


    D
     
    acute radiation syndrome.
    D
  37. Major effect(s) of irradiation of macromolecules include(s)

    1. point lesions

    2. cross-linking

    3. main-chain scission





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  38. Somatic effects resulting from radiation exposure can

    1. have possible consequences on the exposed individual

    2. have possible consequences on future generations

    3. cause temporary infertility





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 3 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  39. Biologic material is least sensitive to irradiation under which of the following conditions?



    A
     
    Anoxic 


    B
     
    Hypoxic 


    C
     
    Oxygenated 


    D
     
    Hyperbaric
    A
  40. The interaction between ionizing radiation and the target molecule that ismost likely to occur is the



    A
     
    direct effect 


    B
     
    indirect effect 


    C
     
    target effect 


    D
     
    random effect
    B
  41. The term used to describe the gradual decrease in exposure rate as an x-ray beam passes through matter is



    A
     
    attenuation 


    B
     
    absorption 


    C
     
    scattered radiation 


    D
     
    secondary radiation
    A
  42. Which of the following anomalies is (are) possible if an exposure dose of 40 rad (400 mGy) were delivered to a pregnant uterus in the third week of pregnancy?

    1. Skeletal anomaly

    2. Organ anomaly

    3. Neurologic anomaly





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  43. Biologic material is most sensitive to radiation exposure under which of the following conditions?



    A
     
    Anoxic 


    B
     
    Hypoxic 


    C
     
    Oxygenated 


    D
     
    Deoxygenated
    C
  44. Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to the dose–response curve shown in Figure 3–6?

    1. The quantity of radiation is directly related to the dose received.

    2. No threshold is required for effects to occur.

    3. A minimum amount of radiation is required for manifestation of effects.



    Image Upload 2





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 3 only 


    D
     
    2 and 3 only
    C
  45. Possible responses to irradiation in utero include

    1. spontaneous abortion

    2. congenital anomalies

    3. childhood malignancies





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3 only
    D
  46. The late effects of radiation are considered to

    1. have no threshold dose.

    2. be directly related to dose.

    3. occur within hours of exposure.





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    1 and 2 only 


    C
     
    2 and 3 only 


    D
     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  47. Which acute radiation syndrome requires the largest exposure before any effects become apparent?



    A
     
    Hematopoietic 


    B
     
    Gastrointestinal 


    C
     
    Central nervous system (CNS) 


    D
     
    Skeletal
    C
  48. Which of the dose–response curve(s) shown in Figure 3–2 illustrate(s) a linear threshold response to radiation exposure?

    1. Dose–response curve A

    2. Dose–response curve B

    3. Dose–response curve C



    Image Upload 3





    A
     
    1 only 


    B
     
    2 only 


    C
     
    1 and 2 only 


    D
     
    2 and 3 only
    B
Author
Anonymous
ID
294801
Card Set
Radiation Protection Biological aspects of radiation
Description
Radiation Protection Biological aspects of radiation
Updated