Microbiology Exam 1

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  1. One group of microbes, _______, are often found in extreme environments and do not cause disease.
  2. The botanist Carolus Linnaeus is remember for his development of a ________ system.
  3. Joseph Lister is remembered for his work advancing the idea of _____ in health care settings.
  4. A set of postulates that can be used to prove the cause of some infectious diseases was first proposed by ______.
  5. _____ is a process of heating liquids such as milk or juices to prevent rapid spoilage.
  6. The ______ is a widely used staining technique that separates bacteria into two large groups based on cell wall composition.
    Gram stain
  7. The use of chemicals to control microbial growth within a host without harming host cells is called _______.
  8. The study of the chemical reactions that occur in living organisms is called ______.
  9. Two scientists whose vaccine work began the field of immunology were ________.
    Jenner and Pasteur
  10. In 1958 Beadle and Tatum used Neurospora, a mold, to discover that one gene's activity is related to the ______ coded by that gene.
  11. List the steps of the Scientific Method:
    • 1. Observation that leads to a question
    • 2. Hypothesis/prediction (if, then question)
    • 3. Experiment
    • 4. Review results
    • 5. Accept, Reject, or Modify experiment
  12. What was Snow recognized for?
    infection control and epidemiology --> the study of disease occurrences and spreading
  13. An atom of an element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
    • Isotope;
    • *Protons are persistent; never change*
    • 13C represents 6 protons and 7 neutrons
  14. What is the formula for determining atomic mass/weight
  15. What are some uses for isotopes in microbiology?
    • sterilization
    • research
    • medical diagnosis
    • medical treatment
  16. Name three types of bonds:
    • Ionic (donating e-)
    • Nonpolar Covalent (equal sharing of e-)
    • Polar Covalent (unequal sharing of e-; electronegativity)
    • Hydrogen (weakest, intermolecular bonding)
  17. Endothermic reactions:
    • energy in
    • synthesis and dehydration reactions
  18. Exothermic reactions:
    • energy out
    • decomposition and hydrolysis reactions
  19. Properties of Water:
    • cohesive
    • polar
    • great solvent
    • heat absorbent
    • participates in many chemical reactions
  20. Sugar builds _____
  21. Fatty acids build _____
    fats (triglycerides), lipids, and membranes
  22. Amino acids build _____.
  23. Nucleotides build ______.
    nucleic acids
  24. What is a saturated fat?
    • filled with hydrogens
    • single bonds
  25. What is an unsaturated fat?
    having double or triple bonds
  26. Give examples of lipids:
    • fats (triglycerides)
    • phospholipids 
    • steroids (cholesterol)
    • waxes
  27. Categories of Carbohydrates:
    • monosaccharide
    • disaccharide
    • polysaccharide
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Microbiology Exam 1
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