Global 10 Midterm Review

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  1. Polytheistic
    Belief in many gods
  2. What is a traditional economy
    • Based primarily on farming
    • formed in early civilizations
    • skilled craftworkers made pottery cloth and other goods
  3. One of the earliest civilizations arose in...
  4. Who was Amon-re? Osiris?
    • Amon-re-chief God of Egypt
    • Osiris-God of the Nile; controlled annual flood
  5. Fertile Crescent
    • Crescent shaped region of good farmland created by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
    • Stretches from Persian to the Mediterranean Sea
    • Lack of natural barriers
    • "The cradle of civilization"
  6. Sumerians
    First civilization of Mesopotamia
  7. Who was Babylons most powerful emperor and what did he establish?
  8. Hammurabi
    Established strict code of Hammurabi "eye for an eye"
  9. What were the two main cities of the Indus civilization ?
    • Harappa and mohenjo-Daro
    • Grid like pattern
  10. What was the Middle Kingdom?
    China, felt like their culture was the center of earth
  11. What was romes greatest achievement ?
    • Their law system
    • -equality,accused on trial , innocent unless proven guilty
  12. Laws of the twelve tables
    • Plebeians demanded written laws
    • Inscribed on tablets and put in marketplace
    • Later won rights to elect officials and serve in gov jobs
  13. From whom did the Romans copy in their style of art and architecture ?
    The Greeks
  14. Aqueducts
    Bridge like stone structures that carried water from hills to cities
  15. Blending of Greek, Hellenistic(Greek culture after Alexander the Great), and roman traditions is referred to as..
    A Greco roman civilization
  16. What did the Phoenicians contribute to history
    The alphabet
  17. Silk Road
    • Opened by Han dynasty
    • Linked China with other lands,like Mesopotamia.
  18. What is Brahman?
    In Hinduism, it is one unifying spirit
  19. What are the 3 most important Hindu gods?
    • Brahma-the creator
    • Vishnu- the preserver
    • Shiva-the distroyer
  20. Karma vs dharma
    • Karma-all deeds of a persons life that affects his/hers existence in the next life
    • Good deeds involve following dharma, moral and religious duties
  21. Caste system
    • Brahmins(priests)
    • Kshatriyas(warriors)
    • Vaisyas(farmers artisans.)
    • Sudras (workers servants)
    • Untouchables
  22. Siddhartha Gautama
    • Founder of Buddhism while meditating under a sacred tree
    • Referred to as the Buddha, or enlightened one
  23. What are the four noble truths?
    • 1. All life is suffering
    • 2. Suffering caused but I desire for things that are illusions
    • 3. The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate a desire
    • 4. Following the eight fold path will help people overcome desire
  24. The eightfold path
    • Shares the right way of life
    • The ultimate goal is nirvana, union with the universe and released from the cycle of death and rebirth
  25. How is Buddhism different from Hinduism
    • Rejects many Hindu gods as well as the idea of rituals and priesthood
    • Rejects caste system
  26. The analects
    Teachings of Confucius that taught people to accept their given place in society
  27. 3 beliefs of Confucianism
    • People are naturally good
    • Education is the road to advancement
    • For social order, the individual must accept his/her proper place in society
  28. Hijra
    When Muhammad and his followers left Mecca for yathrib(medina)
  29. What are the five pillars of Islam?
    • 1. Belief in one God
    • 2. Pray 5 times daily
    • 3. Give money for the poor(almsgiving)
    • 4. Fast during Ramadan
    • 5. Visit Mecca at least once(hajj)
  30. What were 5 reasons for the crusades
    • Pope urban believed it would increase his power
    • Christians thought their sins would be forgiven
    • Nobles wanted land and wealth
    • Adventurers saw it as exciting
    • Serfs wanted to escape feudal opposition
  31. Who conquered Jerusalem after the Christian initial victory ?
    Saladin, the Muslim leader
  32. Who was Richard the lion hearted?
    • Became king of England
    • Determined to retake Jerusalem from Saladin
  33. Impact of the crusades
    • Failed to retake the holy land
    • Left behind religious hatred between Christians and Muslims, sometimes towards Jews
    • BUT it did result in cultural diffusion
  34. Much of Africa is made up of..
    • Savanna- grassy plains
    • Desert- dry land
    • (Also some rainforest)
  35. What was Africa's religious beliefs like
    • Spirits, gods, and goddesses
    • Some believed in a supreme being
  36. What were the most important trade products in Africa
    • Gold and salt
    • What were the tree trading kingdoms of west Africa
    • Ghana
    • Mali
    • Songhai
  37. What was the trading kingdom in east Africa
  38. Who was the most powerful ruler of Mali?
    • Mansa musa
    • Extended borders and dominated west Africa
    • Efficient gov
    • Made Timbuktu a center of learning
  39. On what sea was Axum located
    • The Red Sea
    • Helped to make a thriving trade network
  40. Encomienda system
    A conquistador was granted land along with the permission to demand labor or tribute from native Americans in the area
  41. Who were peninsulares
    Spanish born people are the top of the class structure
  42. Creoles
    Those of European descent that were born In the colonies
  43. Mestizos
    Mixed Native American and European descent
  44. Mulattoes
    Mixed African and European descent
  45. Natural laws
    By the early 1700s, writers sought out to discover these laws that govern human behavior
  46. John Locke
    • Believed all people possess natural rights
    • Life liberty and property
  47. Montesquieu
    Powers of gov should be separated into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative
  48. Voltaire
    • Free speech
    • Criticized French gov and catholic church
  49. Jean Jacques Rousseau
    • The social contract
    • The general will
  50. Thomas Hobbes
    People are greedy and selfish
  51. What were the stages of the French Revolution c
    • Emergence of a strong leader
    • Injustices of the old regime
    • Rule by moderate reformers
    • Rule by radical revolutionaries
    • Return of moderates
    • The conquests of Napoleon increased
    • Nationalistic feeling across Europe and around the world
  52. What was the first European colony to revolt against European rule
  53. Toussaint L'Ouverture
    • Self educated former slave led revolt
    • Led people to liberty in Haiti, Latin America
    • In 1804 Haiti got independence from France and Napoleon
  54. Simon bolivar
    • Educated creole that led resistance movements against the Spanish
    • Used enlightenment ideas and the French Revolution
    • Called "the liberator"
    • Greatest Latin American nationalist leaders
    • Joined with Jose de San martin
  55. Conservatism
    Set of beliefs held by those who wanted to preserve traditional ways
  56. Who dominated the congress of Vienna
    • Prince Clemens Von Metternich
    • Conservative
    • Wanted to make Europe as it was before
  57. Liberalism
    People opposed to the power of monarchs and wanted democratic reforms
  58. Nationalism
    People wanted independent nation-states that were free from foreign rule
  59. Giuseppe mazzini
    • Leader of Italy
    • Young Italy national movement
    • Exiled
    • Writings and speeches were inspiring for nationalists
  60. Count Camilo Cavour
    • Italian leader
    • Sardinia minister
    • Alliances with France and Prussia
    • Drove Austria from Italy
  61. Guiseppe garibaldi
    Soldier who led the forces that won control off southern Italy and the United it with the north
  62. Prussia set up a trade union among German states called the
  63. Otto Van Bismarck
    • Ended trade barriers and was a step towards unity
    • 1862, was chancellor if Prussia
    • Guided German unification
    • Loyal to Prussian king
    • "Blood and iron" was his policy, only way to unite Germany was through war. Helped unify
    • Danish war, Austro
    • Prussian war, Franco-Prussian war
  64. Theodor herzel
    • Created the Jewish ZIONISM
    • Built Jewish state in Palestine
  65. Growth in population due to ___ led to more available workers
    The agrarian revolution
  66. Social Darwinism
    • Successful nations were more successful because they were naturally more "fit" to succeed than others.
    • War allowed stronger nations to weed out weaker ones
  67. Socialism
    Concentrated less on interests of individuals and more on society
  68. Robert Owen
    Set up a utopian factory community
  69. Karl Marx
    • Herman philosopher
    • More radical "scientific socialism"
    • Him and engel made communist manifesto
  70. Mathew Perry
    • Commanded American warships as they sailed to Japan
    • Presented a letter asking Japan to open up trade ports
  71. Treaty of kanagawa
    • The shogun agreed to open two Japanese ports to American ships
    • Many impacts on Japan
    • People felt it was a sign of weakness
    • Rebellion overthrew shogun and restored emperor
  72. Meiji Restoration
    • "Enlightened rule"
    • After the emperor was in power in Japan
    • Borrowed from the west
    • Economic development
    • Strong central gov
    • Military power
  73. Zaibatsu
    • Powerful banking and industry families that bought factories from the government in Japan
  74. White mans burden
    • Poem bu Ruyard Kipling
    • Justification for imperialism
    • White imperialists had a moral duty to educate people in nations they considered less developed
  75. Which victory marks the first time an Asian power defeated a European one?
    When Japan beat Russian troops in Manchuria
  76. The sepoy mutiny
    • Called for Hindus and Muslims to unite against Britain
    • British crushed revolt
    • Caused bitter feelings and ending east India company
  77. What's the British east India company
    • British established trading rights in India
    • Company controlled most of India
    • Sepoys, indian soldiers were employed
  78. Opium war
    • British vs China
    • China wanted to halt imports of the addictive drug
    • Britain won
    • Treaty of nanjing
  79. Treaty of opium war
    • China had to agree to harsh consequences and had to pay war costs
    • Carved spheres of influence (areas in which outside power claimed trade privileges)
  80. The boxer rebellion
    • Westerners (boxers) assaulted foreign communities across China
    • Forced China to grant more concessions to foreign powers
  81. Sun yixian
    • Replaced Quing dynasty
    • Wanted end foreign domination, rep gov, and Eco security
  82. What caused ww1?
    • Mostly nationalism
    • Also rivalries
    • Alliances
    • And decline of Otto empire
    • Militarism
    • Glorification of military power
  83. What were the two most important alliances in ww1
    • The triple alliance (Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy)
    • The triple entente(Britain France and Russia)
  84. The Armenian massacres
    When the Christian Armenians protested oppressive ottoman policies, the Turks unleashed a massacre
  85. Czarist rule-Alexander III and Nicholas II
    • Industrialize and build Russia's economic strength
    • Wanted to block French rev ideals
    • Used harsh tactics(secret police) to suppress reform
  86. What caused the Russian revolution
    • Peasant unrest and poverty
    • Problems of urban workers
    • Diversity and nationalism
    • Revolution of 1905
    • Peaceful marchers carrying signs were shot down by the czars troops (Bloody Sunday)
    • Destroyed people's faith and trust
    • Caused freedom of speech and the Duma(elected legislature)
  87. Soviets
    • Councils of workers and soldiers in Russian cities
    • Later taken over by radical socialist party
  88. Vladimir Lenin
    • Headed revolutionary socialist party, the Bolsheviks
    • Suggested Bolsheviks would guide Revolution in Russia
    • Promised "peace land and bread"
    • Bolsheviks now called communists
Card Set
Global 10 Midterm Review
Global 10 Midterm Review
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