Kaplan Gen Chem Chapter 1-5

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  1. atomic weight
    weighted average of different isotopes
  2. quantum energy
    E=hf where h is planck's constant
  3. the energy of an electron ____, the farther out from the nucleus it is located
  4. atomic emission spectrum
    when electrons are emitted to different energy levels and when these electrons return to their ground states, each will emit a photon w/ wavelength characteristic of the specific energy transition it undergoes.
  5. what does the energy of the emitted photon in emission spectra correspond to?
    • the difference between higher energy initial state and lower energy final state
    • -R [(1/n^2)-(1/n^2)=hf
  6. how many levels of d orbitals are there
  7. how many levels of f are there?
  8. paramagnetic
    magnetic field will cause parallel spins in unpaired electrons and therefore cause attraction.
  9. diamagnetic
    materials that have atoms of all paired electrons will repell magnetic field (creating levitating effect)
  10. valence electrons
    s and p, or s and d, or s and f.
  11. what is the max electrons that can fill a subshell?
    • s=2
    • p=6
    • d=10
    • f=14
  12. effective nuclear charge
    • net positive charge experienced by the outermost electrons
    • Zeff increase from left to right.
  13. ionization potential
    • energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species
    • endothermic
  14. electron affinity
    • exothermic
    • energy dissipated by a gaseous species when it gains an electron
    • greater the Zeff, means greater the energy.
    • noble gases have zero electron affinity b/c they cannot accept electron
  15. why can metals conduct electricity?
    valence electrons are not held tightly and thus they can move about
  16. period on a PT
  17. what is likely to form complexes with H2O?
    transition metals
  18. which elements can have incomplete octet
    H (2), He(2), Li(2), Be(4), B(6)
  19. which elements can form expanded octet
    P (10), S(12), Cl(14)
  20. covalent bonding
    • nonmetals with rel. similar values of electronegativity
    • not crystal lattice like ionic compounds
  21. polar covalent bond
    • 0.5-1.7 is the difference in their electroneg, not sufficient to form ionic, but sep the charge resulting in partial neg and partial pos.
    • creates dipole=qd (charge x distance)
  22. what are the three intermolecular forces?
    london, dipole, and hydrogen
  23. equation for formal charge
    • V-N (nonbonding)-1/2N (bonding)
    • V-electrons in the atom's valence shell normally
  24. difference between molecular weight and atomic weight
    atomic weight is the weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes while molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in a molecule.
  25. normality
    equivalents in molarity divide by liter.
  26. decomposition reaction
    usually with heat, high frequency radiation or electrolysis
  27. neutralization reaction
    acid and base combine to form salt.
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Kaplan Gen Chem Chapter 1-5
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