BIBC 120 Science of Nutrition

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  1. What is a nutrient and what are the six things that fall under this term?
    Needed for energy or for synthesis and/or function of biomolecules

    carbohydrates, proteins, water, lipids, vitamins, minerals
  2. What is an essential nutrient?
    Cannot be synthesized in body, must be consumed in diet
  3. What is a non-essential nutrient?
    Can be synthesized in body.
  4. What is a conditionally essential nutrient?
    Nutrients can be synthesized in body but may be inadequate.
  5. What are macronutrients?
    Bulk of the diet (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, water)
  6. What are micronutrients?
    needed in less than a few milligrams a day (minerals and vitamins)
  7. What are phytochemicals and zoonutrients?
    derived from plants and animals, respectively, that may confer some health benefits but not considered nutrients

    ex. Resveratrol found in red wine is thought to reduce chances of cancer
  8. What is 1 calorie?
    1 calorie is the heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius.
  9. What is the relationship between calorie, kcal, and Calorie?
    1000 calories = 1 kcal = 1 Calorie
  10. What is under-nutrition?
    16% of the world is undernourished, may include insufficient calorie intake or deficiency in nutrients

    ex. Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness
  11. What is over-nutrition?
    Associated with low-level physical activity and consumption of cheap, high-energy foods

    Type 2 diabetes (11% of US population)
  12. What does the NAS do?
    Set nutrition requirements
  13. What does the USDA do?
    Set guidelines
  14. What does the FDA do?
    Regulate food labeling
  15. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
    bracketed for age, sex, pregnancy
  16. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
    Used to examine likelihood that intake is adequate in a population
  17. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    Used as a goal to help ensure adequate intake in an individual

    vitamins, minerals, proteins: % of how much you need
  18. Adequate Intake (AI) Level
    Used to examine likelihood that intake is adequate when no RDA is set for a nutrient
  19. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    Used to determine likelihood of excess or toxicity

    fats, cholesterol, sodium, carbs: % you don't want to go above
  20. Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
    kcal that should be consumed per day
  21. Acceptable Measurement Distribution Range (AMDR)
    Percent of total kcal (EER) that should be (for adults)

    • 45-65% - Carbs
    • 10-35% - Protein
    • 20-35% - Fats
  22. Five important things on nutrition facts panel
    • 1. Cal/serving
    • 2. serving size
    • 3. percent daily value for 2000 Cal
    • 4. ingredients (descending order of abundance)
    • 5. footnotes
  23. What are the FDA Proposed Changes to Nutrition Facts Label in 2014?
    • - update serving sizes
    • - include "added sugars"
    • - greater emphasis on energy balance; less emphasis on Calories from total fat
  24. What are Nutrient Content Claims?
    • - Describe amount of nutrient or Calories per serving
    • - Pre-established by FDA based on fixed standards
    • - Foods and dietary supplements

    ex. Fat free, low fat, etc.
  25. What are the two types of Health Claims and what are they?
    Health claims are claims about how product may affect risk for disease or health related conditions

    regular or qualified
  26. Regular health claims
    • - Supported by considerable scientific evidence—standard is “significant scientific agreement”
    • - Are pre-approved by FDA or authorized by governmental scientific body (NAS)
    • - Pre-approved claims may be used with dietary supplements
  27. Qualified health claims
    • Much lower standard of evidence—some credible evidence but does not meet the “significant scientific agreement” standard
    • Requires petition to FDA
    • Must be accompanied by qualifying statement
    • Allowed for both regular foods and dietary supplements
  28. Structure and function claims
    • - Statement of the role that nutrient is known to play in normal metabolism and physiology
    • - Cannot link nutrient to overall health or decreased susceptibility to disease
    • - Not pre-approved by FDA but must be truthful
    • - FDA requires disclaimer when these claims are made on dietary supplement labels, stating that “the FDA has not evaluated the claim and the product is not intended to …. prevent any disease, etc.”
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BIBC 120 Science of Nutrition
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