A&P 2 exam 1 (part 1)

  1. quality -
  2. human body is an
  3. maintenance of a relatively constant internal state regardless of what happens outside your body
  4. what can you prevent from occurring?
  5. mechanism that controls fluctuations
    control system
  6. cells exist if fluid remains constant in
    quality and quantity
  7. area where water is in high concentration to low concentration
  8. space between blood vessel and cells
  9. blood is aka
  10. fluid within a cell is the ____ aka
    • cytoplasm
    • intracellular
  11. when you add ions to a solution of water, you increase ?
    concentration of solute or ions
  12. mOsm ?
  13. concentration of body cells, extracellular fluid and blood
    290 mOsm
  14. 290 mOsm can vary by?
    plus or minus 5
  15. water follows salt, meaning
    water goes towards more concentrated (higher) number
  16. occur but within narrow limits
  17. goes below level of homeostasis
    down regulation
  18. go about homeostasis level
    up regulation
  19. human body is not proactive, but ___
  20. this type of feedback works against a disturbance
    negative feedback
  21. normal body temp is
    37.1 degrees C
  22. ex of negative feedback
  23. what is perspiration an ex of negative feedback?
    bc it helps to cool down the body
  24. which feedback mechanism is most common
    negative feedback
  25. doesn't prevent displacement and restores stability close to operating parameters
    negative feedback
  26. difference between negative and positive reinforcement?
    negative has an inverted amplifier
  27. why is positive feedback so rare?
    bc it is mostly destructive
  28. ex of positive feedback?
    congestive heart failure
  29. this is a virus that attacks cells when you have low blood pressure and your blood flow slows down
    congestive heart failure
  30. positive feedback tries to make pump work harder meaning that you will have
    short term gain, but long term pain
  31. stimulus goes in?
  32. stimulus goes out?
  33. flow of control systems?
    • stimulus
    • receptor (cell)
    • integration (CNS)
    • effector (muscle, gland)
  34. sympathetic and parasympathetic are ___ to one another
  35. fight or flight
    sympathetic division of ANS
  36. rest and digest division of ANS
    parasympathetic division
  37. which division is up regulatory?
  38. which division if down regulatory? exception?
    • parasympthatic
    • rest- down regulates
    • digest - up regulates
  39. collection of cell bodies
  40. short ganglia before neuron
    preganglionic neuron
  41. long ganglia after neuron
    postganglionic neuron
  42. pre and post ganglionic neurons are ___
  43. a neuron attaches to a target organ
  44. ex of innervation?
    heart is innervated by the ANS
  45. has multiple neurotransmitters
  46. works neutrally and hormonely
  47. surrounds blood vesserls
    smooth muscle
  48. SNS has no?
  49. voluntary of involuntary: SNS? ANS?
    • sns- voluntary
    • ANS- involuntary
  50. SNS has how many neurotransmitters? names?
    • 1
    • AcH
  51. ANS has how many neurotransmitters? names?
    • 2
    • Ach and norepinephrine
  52. to up and down regulate, it depends on?
    the neurotransmitter released
  53. parasympathetic is located ?
    at the top and bottom of the spine
  54. sympathetic is located?
    in the middle of the spine
  55. found close to target organ
    para ganglia
  56. sympathetic ganglia are found?
    far from target organ
  57. parallel to spinal cord found in sympathetic division of ANS
  58. neurons that release Ach
  59. neurons that release norepinephrine
  60. all preganglionic nerves are
  61. postganglionic neurons of parasympathetic are
  62. postganglionic neurons of sympathetic are
  63. receptors that recognice Ach
    cholinergic receptors
  64. 2 types of cholinergic receptors?
    • nicotinic receptors
    • muscarinic receptors
  65. always stimulatory and are located btwn 2 neurons
    nicotinic receptors
  66. can be inhibitory or stimulatory and are located in all parasympathetic target organs
    muscarinic receptors
  67. muscarinic receptors depend on if Ach is
    up or down regulated
  68. bind neuroepinephrine
    adrenergic receptors
  69. 2 types of adrenergic receptors
    • alpha
    • beta
  70. general stimulatory (up regulates), except for digestion where it down regulates
    alpha adrenergic receptors
  71. generally inhibitory (down regulates) except for the heart where is up regulates
    beta adrenergic receptors
  72. why is the heart up regulating, opposite of its classification?
    bc you want it to up regulate with only beta receptors
  73. control center for ANS and receive info from brain and limboglobe
Card Set
A&P 2 exam 1 (part 1)
A&P 1 spring 2015 Introduction Autonomic Nervous System