World Prehistory Ch 5

  1. Last Glacial Maximum
    The height of the last Ice Age, between 22,000 and 19,000 BCE
  2. Bølling/Allerød interstadial
    warming period, 13,000BCE, weakened Ice Age
  3. Younger Dryas
    • Period of renewed glacial conditions 
    • following Bølling/ Allerød
  4. Holocene
    • Era following Pleistocene 
    • end of ice age, more consistent temp and rainfall, warmer
  5. Interglacial
    Period of warmer, wetter climate between Ice Ages
  6. megafauna
    Large mammal species of Late Pleistocene
  7. Eustatic Sea level rise
    Rise in sea level from glacial melting
  8. Isostatic uplift
    Rise of landmasses after ice sheets are removed
  9. Pollen zones
    subdivisions used to classify regional environments based on pollen cores
  10. Sedentism
    Permenant, year-round settlement
  11. Microliths
    Small stone flakes inserted into wood or bone to make composite tools
  12. Natural selection
    genetic change caused over time due to selective external pressures
  13. Unintentional selection
    • Genetic/Morphological change within a species caused by accidental selection
    • ex: Wheat
  14. Domestication
    Humans selecting species for beneficial traits
  15. Cultivation
    Intentionally preparing and shaping something
  16. Agriculture
    Commitment to domestication, cultivation and herding
  17. Social differentiation
    creation of social roles and statuses marked by use of material
  18. Social complexity
    Institutionalizing the increasing social differentiation
  19. Urbanization
    Increased density and differentiation, pulling population and wealth into large centers
  20. State formation
    Centralized political institution with ruling elite
  21. Mesolithic
    • Period spanning the end of the last Ice Age to adoption of agriculture
    • Microlithic tech
  22. Mesopotamia
    • Region in the Tigris and Euphrates plains of Iraq
    • Earliest development of cities and city states
  23. Nile Valley
    • Early development of cities and states
    • rivaled mesopotamia
  24. Harappan Culture
    Early state society, located along Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys
  25. China
    Region where early development of city and states
  26. Teotihuacan
    • Early city-state
    • Basin of Mexico
  27. Maya
    • Early city-state
    • Guatemala
  28. Monte Alban
    • Early city-state
    • Oaxaca Valley, Mexico
  29. Angkor
    • Southeast Asian city-state
    • Cambodia
  30. Progressivist view
    View that movement from hunting/gather -> farming ->states is evolutionary
  31. Oasis theory
    Theory that increasing dryness pushed humans and animals into same enviroments, triggering agriculture
  32. Neolithic Revolution
    Describes the origin and consequences of farming allowing development of village life
  33. Hilly flanks hypothesis
    argues that farming originated in fertile crescent
  34. Evolution and Intentionality
    Argues that agriculture is accidental from domestication or protection of resources
  35. Feasting hypothesis
    Agriculture comes from a need to get food surplus, to gain wealth, to gain prestige/power
  36. Hydraulic hypothesis
    explains rise of states and elites by saying increased food production lead to power
  37. Irrigation
    Watering crops artificially
  38. Plowing
    Cultivates land by digging it up
  39. Terracing
    Agriculture technique that increases flat land
Card Set
World Prehistory Ch 5
World Prehistory, Chapter 5