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Chemistry Chapter 3 Quantum Theory
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Two types of energy
kinetic - from motion (ie thermal)
potential - possessed energy, dependent upon position (chemical energy, electrostatic energy)
Units of energy
joules (J)
and lower case calorie
Light
radiation
transmission of energy in waves
Wave components
wavelength
amplitude
frequency
speed of light
Wavelength
λ
distance between identical points on successive waves
amplitude
α
vertical distance between midline of wave to peak or trough
Frequency
ν
cycles/waves
unit
: 1/s or s-1 or hertz or hz
speed of light (constant)
c
3.00E8m/s in vacum
c = λν
Electromagnetic Spectrum
gamma, xtray, uv, light, infared, microwave, radio
starts from highest E and highest frequency and lowest wavelength to lowest energy loweest frequency highest wavelength
Quantum theory
Max Planck - energy was emitted/absorbed in discrete quantities (quantum)
Einstein added on quantum and added....
ephoton = hv
h=planck's constant 6.63E-34 J*s
light a wave or particle
both
Heinsberg Uncertainty Principle
Not possible to know the momentum and position of the particle with certainty THEREFORE the electron cannot orbit the nucleus in a defined path
important because electron can predict reactivity and qm helps explain that
Quantum Mechanics
describes the PROBABILITY of where an electron is at any given time
Electron Density (add on to QM)
gives the probablity of where an electron will be found in a specific part of an atom
Atomic Orbital
WHERE electron density is distributed at a specific energy
(also relates to quantum numbers)
Quantum Numbers
describes HOW electron density is distributed within the atom
1. Principle Quantum # (n)
2. Angular Momentum Quantum # (l)
3. Magnetic Quantum # (Ml)
4. Electron Spin Quantum #(Ms)
Principle Quantum # (n)
tells you about the SIZE of the orbital
as n increases, the distance from the nucleus increases and electron stability decreases
Angular Momentum Quantum # (l)
tells you about the SHAPE of the orbital (depends on n)
ranges from 0 to n-1
spdf
Magnetic Quantum # (Ml)
tells you the orientation of the orbital in 3D space (depends on l)
# of values for Ml = 2l +1
Electron Spin Quantom # (Ms)
describes the electron spin
electron behaves like a magnet and has 2 possible directions of spin
: spin up 1/2 or spin down -1/2
*can only have 2 electrons in 1 orbital and both must be in opposite spin
Atomic Orbitals
SPDF
look it up...
Electron Configuration
how electrons are distributed in orbitals
Pauli Exclusion Principle
no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same 4q#s
2 electrons that occupy the same space MUST have different spins
Aufbau Princple
add electron to orbital from low to high
aka building up
Hund's Rule
Cannot pair electrons in degenerate orbitals until all are the same spin
Author
misol
ID
294232
Card Set
Chemistry Chapter 3 Quantum Theory
Description
chemistry chapter 3 quantum theory
Updated
2015-01-29T05:05:52Z
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