effect of target materials

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  1. In the diagnostic range, a 15% increase in kVp is equivalent to doubling the ___
  2. Adding filtration to the useful x-ray beam dose what
    reduces x-ray beam intensity while increasing the average energy
  3. The result of added filtration is
    an increase in the average energy of the x-ray beam with an accompanying reduction in x-ray quantity
  4. Adding filtration is sometimes called _____ the x-ray beam because of the relative increase in average energy.
  5. The atomic number of the target affects both the ___ and the effective energy  of x-rays.
    • number (quantity)
    • (quality)
  6. X-ray quantity is
    the number of x-rays in the useful beam.
  7. The factors that affect x-ray quantity
    • MaS
    • KvP
    • Filtration
    • Distance
  8. Consequently, to maintain a constant exposure of the image receptor, an increase of __% in kVp should be accompanied by a reduction of____ in mAs.
    • 15%
    • one half
  9. The HVL of an x-ray beam is
    the thickness of absorbing material necessary to reduce the x-ray intensity to half of its original value.
  10. the incident x-ray interacts with an outer-shell electron and ejects it from the atom, thereby ionizing the atom. The ejected electron is called a ______
    Compton electron
  11.  ________occurs between moderate-energy x-rays and outer-shell electrons. It results in ionization of the target atom, a change in x-ray direction, and a reduction in x-ray energy.
    Compton scattering
  12. X-rays in the diagnostic range also undergo ionizing interactions with inner-shell electrons. The x-ray is not scattered, but it is totally absorbed. This process is called the _______
    photoelectric effect
  13. The electron removed from the atom, called a _________, escapes with kinetic energy equal to the difference between the energy of the incident x-ray and the binding energy of the electron
  14. The _______ effect occurs when an incident x-ray is totally absorbed during the ionization of an inner-shell electron.
  15. The incident photon disappears, and the K-shell electron, now called a _____, is ejected from the atom.
  16. Image Upload 1
  17. The interaction between the x-ray and the nuclear field causes the x-ray to disappear, and in its place, two electrons appear, one positively charged (positron) and one negatively charged. This process is called ____
    pair production
  18. Pair production occurs with x-rays that have energies greater than _____. The x-ray interacts with the nuclear field, and two electrons that have opposite electrostatic charges are created.
    1.02 MeV
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effect of target materials
effect of target materials
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