Surgery Dr Q: Respiration part 1

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  1. Total process where oxygen is supplied to and used by body cells and carbon dioxide is eliminated by means of gradients
  2. Movement of gas in and out of alveoli
  3. Gas exchange occurs where?
    Alveolar and capillary membranes
  4. When is equilibrium almost reached?
    • Between blood in lungs and air in alveolus
    • PO2 in blood almost equals PO2 in alveolus
  5. 1 gram of hemoglobin capable of combining with how much O2?
    1.36 mL O2
  6. What is the end product of glucose oxidation?
  7. During exercise CO2 is what?
  8. During anestheia production of CO2 what?
  9. In the tissues, this reacts with CO2 and H2O to form carbonic acid
    Carbon anhydrase
  10. Lobes of the lungs
    • Apical lobe
    • Cardiac lobe
    • Accessory lobe
    • Diaphragmatic lobe
  11. Inspiration causes the chest cavity to expand and creates what
    Negative pressure and is an active process
  12. Passive process that is a natural recoil or elasticity of the expanded lung and chest wall
  13. 3 areas of pulmonary ventilation
    • 1) Muscles
    • 2) Movement of air 
    • 3) Plural pressure
  14. Lung expansion/contractions in regard to pulmonary ventilation
  15. In/out movement of lungs and pressure that closes it in regards to pulmonary ventilation
    Movement of air
  16. Changes during respiration in regards to pulmonary ventilation
    Plural pressure
  17. Muscles that cause lung expansion/contraction
    • 1) Abdominal muscles
    • 2) Intercostal muscles
    • 3) Diaphragm
  18. 2 ways muscles cause lung expansion/contraction
    • 1) Downward/upward movement of diaphragm to lengthen and shorten
    • 2) Elevation/depression of ribs to increase and decrease the diameter of the chest cavity
  19. Layer of substance the lungs float in the thorax
    Plural fluid
  20. Plural fluid designed to (2 things)
    • 1) Prevent friction
    • 2) Reduce heat from excess movement
  21. Anesthetics cause
    • 1) Suppress respiration
    • 2) Cardiovascular function
  22. Normal quiet breathing
  23. Labored breathing
  24. Fast/deep respiration
  25. Rapid, shallow breathing, panting
  26. Cessation of breathing
  27. Slow/shallow breathing
  28. Long, gasping inspirations with several subsequent ineffective exhalations. Commonly seen with ketamine hydrochloride
    Apneustic respiration
  29. Sequences of gasps, apnea, and deep gasps
    Blot respiration
  30. Increase in rate and depth, becomes slower and followed by brief apnea
    Cheyene-stokes respiration
  31. Regular, deep respirations without pause
    Kussmaul respirations
  32. Concentration of oxygen attached to hemoglobin
  33. Adequate delivery of O2
  34. Reduced O2 consumption
  35. Volume of gas passing into and out of the lungs in one normal respiratory cycle.
    Tidal volume
  36. Volume of air that can be inspired over and above the normal tidal volume
    Inspiratory Reserve Volume
  37. Amount of air that can be expired by forceful expiration after a normal tidal expiration.
    Expiratory Reserve Volume
  38. The air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration.
    Residual Volume
  39. Describe the amount of gas moved per minute
    Minute volume
  40. Minute volume formula
    Respiratory rate X Tidal volume
  41. Contributes to gas exchange
    Alveolar ventilation
  42. Little to no diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through membranes of airways known as
    Dead space
  43. When you breathe for an animal via respiratory bag, ambu bag, etc.
    Positive pressure ventilation
  44. Increased CO2/decrease of CO2
  45. SpO2 less than 95%
  46. PaO2 less than 100 mmHG on oxygen or a low observed minute volume
  47. Other causes for positive pressure ventilation
    • 1) Surgery requiring open chest 
    • 2) Neuromuscular disease 
    • 3) Chest wall trauma 
    • 4) Abdominal enlargement 
    • 5) Pulmonary parenchymal disease
  48. Amount of air that a person can breathe beginning at the normal expiratory level and distending the lungs to the maximum amount.TV+IRV
    Inspiratory capacity
  49. Amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of normal expiration. ERV+RV
    Functional residual capacity
  50. Maximum amount of air that a person can expel from the lungs after first filling the lungs to their maximum extent and then expiring to the maximum extent. IRV + TV = ERV
    Vital capacity
  51. Maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded with the greatest possible inspiratory effort. VC + RV
    Total lung capacity
  52. Begins in the larynx (voice box). Two fibrous connective tissue bands called the vocal (vocal folds) stretch across the lumen of the larynx and vibrate as air passes over them.
    Voice Production (phonation)
  53. Higher the Co2 the more what kind of environment and what ph?
    Acid environment and lower the pH
  54. Lower the Co2 the more kind of enviornment and what pH?
    Alkline environment and higher the pH
  55. Respiratory acidosis
    • Lower pH
    • Increased PaCO2
    • Lungs cant get rid of CO2
    • Hyperventilating
  56. Respiratory alkalosis
    • Higher pH
    • Decreased PaCO2
    • Lungs releasing to much CO2
    • Hyperventilating
  57. 3 secondary functions of the respiratory system
    • 1) Voice production
    • 2) Body temperature regulation 
    • 3) Acid-Base balance
  58. Methods to maintain neutral pH
    • 1) Blood buffers
    • 2) Respiration
    • 3) Kidneys
  59. Blood buffers
    Body releases sodium bicarbonate from pancreas
  60. Ratio of O2 to Co2
  61. How kidneys help maintain neutral blood pH
    Retains more positive ions like Na and excretes more negative ions like H and Cl
  62. Acid ions
    CO2 and H
  63. Alkaline ions
    O2 and Na
  64. Increase in H and CO2 ions
    Metabolic acidosis
  65. Causes of metabolic acidosis
    • Diarrhea
    • Ketosis
    • Infectious diseases
    • Renal insufficiency
    • Shocks
    • Administration of acid drugs
  66. Increase in CO2 resulting from hypoventilation with retention of carbon dioxide.
    Respiratory acidosis
  67. Body attempts to correct acidosis by increasing respiration by:
    • 1) Remove CO2
    • 2) Conserve bicarbonate ions
    • 3) Excrete hydrogen ions
  68. Increase in O2 and sodium bicarbonate.
    Metabolic alkalosis
  69. Causes of metabolic alkalosis
    • 1) Vomiting
    • 2) Corticosteroid overdose
  70. Body will attempt to correct metabolic alkalosis by slowing respirations by
    • 1) Kidneys excreting bicarbonate ions
    • 2) Retain hydrogen ions
  71. Increase in O2
    Respiratory alkalosis
  72. Causes of respiratory alkalosis
    • 1) Hyperventilation
    • 2) Abnormally low loss of CO2 as compared to O2 inhalation
  73. Occurs all over the body, exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood in the capillaries, cells and tissues. Business end of respiration
    Internal respiration
  74. Passage of gas from alveoli to RBC
    • 1. Surfactant lining the alveoli is a phospholipid produced by the inner lining of the alveoli
    • 2. Alveoli Epithelium
    • 3. Capillary Endothelium (simple squamous) intercellular clefts.
    • 4. Plasma
    • 5. Red Blood Cell Membrane
  75. Normal activity consumes about 25% of the normal 20 mL/dL of the oxygen circulated as blood is circulated to tissues. 25% value knows as
    Utilization Coefficient
  76. Central respiratory centers located where
    Medulla and pons
  77. Concentrations of O2 and CO2 at aortic arch and carotid sinus
    Peripheral Chemoreceptors
  78. Measuring blood pressures at aortic arch and carotid sinus
    Peripheral pressoreceptors
  79. Cardioinhibitory center and Vasomotor center are in direct nervous contact with the
    Carotid sinus, aortic arch, lungs at the bifurcation of the trachea via the glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve
  80. Chemoreceptors generally respond to O2 and CO2 concentrations to do what with respiration
    Increase respirations
  81. Pressoreceptors generally respond to blood pressures to do what with respiration
    Inhibit respirations
  82. Carotid Sinus location of pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    Bifurcation of the carotid artery to form the internal carotid arteries
  83. Aortic body location of pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    Lesser curvature of the aorta
Card Set
Surgery Dr Q: Respiration part 1
Dr Q Respiration part 1
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