Biology 40s Exam - Long Answer

  1. What are antibiotic resistant germs like the new strains of tuberculosis? What are concerning  to doctors about these superbugs?
    • Antibiotic resistant germs are bacteria that evolve to be immune to antibiotics.
    • Doctors are concerned because these superbugs will evolve to be resistant to any antibiotic.
  2. While learning about fungi, we discussed a few examples of MUTUALISM. Define mutualism and provide one example from the Kingdom Fungi.
    • Two species co-existing together.
    • Fungi: provides water/protection for algae.
    • Algae: provides food for fungi.
  3. Explain the process of double fertilization that occurs in flowering plants.
    1st fertilization: Fusion of pollen (sperm) + ovule > embryo (becomes seeds)

    2nd fertilization: Fusion of a second pollen (1N sperm) + polar nuclei (2N) > endosperm (3N) (becomes fruit)
  4. Explain the 4 key steps in the lytic cycle.
    • 1. The virus attaches itself to a host cell and injects its genetic material into the host cell.
    • 2. The virus DNA/RNA tricks the host cell to make more viruses.
    • 3. Viruses are assembled.
    • 4. The host cell then ruptures and releases the viruses which reinfect other cells.
  5. Pick an invertebrate of your choice, and describe 4 characteristics that allow the organism to be adapted to live in its environment. Include as many details as possible.
    • Segmented Worms
    • 1. An earthworm has a complete digestive system. Mouth-tube-anus. Mouth takes in food, anus releases digested wastes, so removal of digested wastes does not interfere with food intake.
    • 2. They have setae or bristles on their ventral side that improves locomotion.
    • 3. They are hermaphrodites which allows them to fertilize each other during copulation.
    • 4. They extract their nutrients from the soil.
  6. Using two examples, describe how complete metamorphosis in Class Insecta is different from incomplete metamorphosis.
    • Complete Metamorphosis: Larvae and adults are very different. Pupa formed. 
    • ex) beetles, flies, bees, butterflies, ants
    • eggs > larva > pupa > adult

    • Incomplete Metamorphosis: The nymphs more or less resembles the adults. No pupa is formed.
    • ex) grasshoppers, cockroaches, dragonflies
    • eggs > nymphs > adults
  7. What is the difference between the thermoregulation of an ectotherm vs. an endotherm? Explain the difference between the two. Also provide the two classes that are endothermic.
    Ectotherm: an animal where their internal body temperature is controlled by its surroundings.

    • Endotherm: an animal that can maintain its own body temperature at a fixed temperature.
    • -Class Aves
    • -Class Mammals
  8. Describe the 3 sub-classes of Mammals in detail. Provide two examples of each.
    • Monotremes:
    • -lay eggs
    • -carry eggs in pouches
    • -body temp ~32 degrees
    • -nurse young after hatching
    • ex) platypus, anteater

    • Marsupials:
    • -pouched animals
    • -body temp ~35 degrees
    • -give birth to live young but very undeveloped
    • -young attach to nipples and continue to develop in the pouch
    • ex) kangaroos, koalas

    • Placentals:
    • -placenta for nutrients
    • -placenta for a nutritive connection between embryo and uterus
    • -young are well-developed when born
    • ex) humans, dogs
  9. Would a bacterial cell or a liver cell be larger in size? Explain your answer.
    A liver cell would be larger in size because they are eukaryotic. Liver cells have a nucleus and organelles unlike bacterial cells that do not .(prokaryotic and only contain DNA)>
  10. Why sit it important that Euglena constantly swim towards the sun?
    They are autotrophic. Euglena need chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll to survive.
  11. How is Malaria transmitted? Have an understanding of the cycle once it is inside the human body.
    • 1. Malaria is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito.
    • 2. The mosquito injects plasmodium sporozoites into the bloodstream.
    • 3. These sporozoites then proceed to your liver where they are metabolized and changed into morozoites.
    • 4. They then infect your RBCs.
  12. What are the good functions of bacteria?
    • Decompose dead matter in ecosystems.
    • E. coli in small intestine, helps digest food we can't and releases vitamins.
    • Lactobacillus ingests lactose in milk.
    • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria change inorganic Ninto nitrates for plants.
  13. What are the bad functions of bacteria?
    • Cyanobacteria causes damage and slime in waterways.
    • Cause food poisoning like cholera from contaminated water or salmonella from raw chicken.
    • Respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia.
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Biology 40s Exam - Long Answer