English Grammar I

  1. Capitalization Rule #1
    • first word of a sentence
    • the pronoun I
    • interjection O
  2. Capitalization Rule #2
    all words referring to God
  3. Capitalization Rule #3
    words that show family relationship if used as a name, but not if preceded by a possessive pronoun
  4. Capitalization Rule #4
    first word and all important words in titles
  5. Capitalization Rule #5
    • months of the year
    • days of the week
    • B.C and A.D.
  6. Capitalization Rule #6
    compass directions when referring to regions of the world but not compass directions
  7. Capitalization Rule #7
    • titles of persons when they precede a name or when used in place of a name.
    • Dr., Mr., Mrs., Senator, President, Captain, etc.
  8. Capitalization Rule #8
    • salutation and closing of a letter
    • Dear John
    • Sincerely, Lucas
  9. Capitalization Rule #9
    the first word of a direct quote
  10. Capitalization Rule #10
    • proper nouns and adjectives
    • Victorian literature
  11. What is a sentence?
    A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought.
  12. What are the two parts of every sentence?
    The two parts of every sentence are the subject and predicate.
  13. What is a subject?
    The subject tells who or what the sentence is about.
  14. What is a predicate?
    The predicate tell what the subject is or does.
  15. Give the four types of sentences with definitions
    • Declarative - makes a statement
    • Imperative - gives a command or makes a                                            request
    • Interrogative - asks a question
    • Exclamatory - expresses strong feeling
  16. Give the eight parts of speech
    • Noun
    • Pronoun
    • Verb
    • Adverb
    • Conjunction
    • Interjection
    • Preposition
    • Adjective
  17. What is a noun?
    a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea
  18. Name the four ways nouns may be classified
    Nouns may be common or proper, concrete or abstract, collective, and compound.
  19. What is a common noun? Give examples
    A common noun names a non-specific person, place, or thing. It is not capitalized. (ex. man, country, building)
  20. What is a proper noun? Give examples.
    A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing. It is capitalized. (ex. John, Italy, the White House)
  21. What is a concrete noun? Give examples.
    A concrete noun names something that can be perceived by the senses. (ex. table, book, smoke)
  22. What is an abstract noun? Give examples.
    An abstract noun names a quality, characteristic, or ideal that cannot be perceived by the senses. (ex. hope, beauty, love)
  23. What is a compound noun? Give the three kinds with examples.
    • The words can be joined into one word. (ex. doorstep)
    • The words can be joined with hyphens (ex. sister-in-law)
    • The words can be separate (ex. United States of America)
  24. What is a collective noun? Give examples.
    A collective noun names a group. (ex. team, flock, class)
  25. Name and define the three grammar persons.
    • first person (the person speaking)
    • second person (the person spoken to)
    • third person (the person spoken about)
  26. What is a pronoun?
    a word used in place of a noun
  27. Give the subject personal pronouns in three persons. (nominative pronouns)
    • I
    • you
    • he, she, it
    • we
    • you 
    • they
  28. Give the object personal pronouns in three persons. (objective pronouns)

    • me
    • you
    • him, her, it
    • us 
    • you
    • them
  29. What is an adjective?
    a word that modifies a noun or pronoun
  30. Give the three questions adjectives answer with examples.
    • Adjectives answer the questions:
    • which one (ex. John gave Mary that rose)
    • what kind (ex. John gave Mary a red rose)
    • how much or how many (ex. John gave Mary six roses)
  31. What is an adverb?
    a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
  32. Give the four questions adverbs answer. Give examples.
    • Adverbs answer the questions:
    • how (ex. He walks gracefully.)
    • when (ex. He walks early.)
    • where (ex. He walks everywhere.)
    • to what extent (ex. He walks often.)
  33. What is a verb?
    a word that shows action or being
  34. What verb shows being or existence?
    The verb to be shows being or existence.
  35. Give all forms of the verb to be.
    • am
    • are
    • is, was, were
    • be, being, been
  36. What is a physical action verb? Give examples.
    A physical action verb expresses action that can be perceived by the senses. (ex. kick, run, eat)
  37. What is a mental action verb? Give examples.
    A mental action verb expresses action that cannot be perceived by the senses. (ex. think, know, believe)
  38. What is a verb phrase? Give examples.
    A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs. (ex. I have been walking for an hour. I should have walked yesterday.)
  39. Give the common helping verbs.
    • am, are, is, was, were, being, been
    • have, has, had
    • do, does, did
    • may, might, must
    • can, could
    • will, would
    • shall, should, ought
  40. Give the first three English verb tenses and an example of each using I walk.
    • Present tense - I walk
    • Past tense - I walked
    • Future tense - I will walk
  41. End Mark Rule #1
    Use a period at the end of a statement.
  42. End Mark Rule #2
    • Use a period at the end of an abbreviation. (ex. St., Rd., Mr., Dr.)
    • Do not use a period for abbreviations of well-known phrases or names of organizations. (ex. KJV, USA, USPS)
    • Use a period after each initial that is part of a name. (ex. C.S. Lewis)
  43. End Mark Rule #3
    Use an exclamation point at the end of an exclamation. (ex. What a beautiful sunrise!)
  44. End Mark Rule #4
    Use a question mark at the end of a question. (ex. What time is it?)
  45. End Mark Rule #5
    An imperative sentence may be followed by a period or an exclamation mark, depending on the force intended. (ex. Please close the door. Come here right now!)
  46. Comma Rule #1
    Use a comma to separate items in a series. (ex. I have pens, paper, pencils, and books in my backpack.)
  47. Comma Rule #2
    Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun. (ex. It was a gray, dreary morning.)
  48. Comma Rule #3
    • Use a comma in certain conventional situations. 
    • a. To separate items in addresses and dates (ex. We have lived at 12 Maple Street in Albany, NY, since March 17, 1990.)
    • b. After the salutation of a friendly letter and the closing of any letter. (ex. Dear Sue, Sincerely, Sally)
    • c. Use a comma after a name when followed by Jr., Sr., Ph.D. (ex. Martin Luther King, Jr.)
  49. Apostrophe Rule #1
    Add an apostrophe to form the possessive of a plural noun ending in s. (ex. All the boys' shoes were wet and muddy.
  50. Apostrophe Rule #2
    Add an apostrophe s ('s) to form the possessive of a singular noun or plural nouns not ending in s.
  51. Apostrophe Rule #3
    Add an apostrophe to indicate where letters have been omitted in a contraction. (ex. can't, didn't)
  52. Quotation Marks Rule #1
    Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quote - a person's exact words. (ex. Aslan said, "Once a king or queen in Narnia, always a king or queen."
  53. Colon Rule #1
    • Use a colon in certain conventional situations.
    • a. between the hour and the minute (ex. 4:00 p.m.)
    • b. between the chapter and verse for Bible references (ex. John 3:16)
  54. Hyphen Rule #1
    Hyphens are used in writing compound number words from twenty-one through ninety-nine.
  55. Hyphen Rule #2
    Hyphens are used in many compound words. (ex. great-grandfather)
Card Set
English Grammar I
English Grammar I from Memoria Press