Biology 40s Exam - Kingdom Monera

  1. what are characteristics of kingdom monera
    • prokaryotic cells
    • no nucleus or organelles
    • oldest life form
    • unicellular
    • aerobic or anerobic
    • cell walls with peptodoglycan
  2. define aerobic
    bacteria that need O2
  3. define anerobic
    bacteria that live without O2
  4. bacteria in kingdom monera have cells made of what
    peptidoglycan (polysaccharides + amino acids)
  5. what are the 3 forms bacteria
    • cocci (round) - form clusters
    • bacilli (rods) - form chains
    • spirilla (spiral) - single cells only
  6. what are the good functions of bacteria
    • decompose dead matter in ecosystems
    • e.coli in small intestine, helps digest food we can't and releases vitamins
    • lactobacillus ingests lactose in milk
    • nitrogen-fixing bacteria change inorganic N2 into nitrates for plants
  7. what are the bad functions of bacteria
    • cyanobacteria causes damage and slime in waterways
    • cause food poisoning like cholera from contaminated water or salmonella from raw chicken
    • respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia
  8. what are examples of "ugly" bacteria
    • anthrax: bacteria used in bio-warfare
    • black plague: rats with fleas, carried the bacteria¬†
    • bacterial STI's: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis
  9. how do bacteria in kingdom monera reproduce
    • binary fission
    • conjugation
  10. define binary fission
    • asexual reproduction
    • one cell forms two identical cells
    • lack of genetic variability
    • allows bacteria to reproduce at incredible rates
  11. define conjugation
    • sexual reproduction
    • the process of sexual reproduction in bacteria
    • a 'bridge' is formed between male and female bacteria and the genetic material is transferred via direct contact
    • bridge is called pilus
  12. what are dormant bacteria
    • endospores
    • when conditions are not favorable, bacteria may form an endospore
  13. how do you kill bad bacteria
    • antibiotics kill bacteria (not viruses)
    • viruses are treated with anti-retroviral drugs
    • penicillin¬†
    • antibiotic resistant bacteria are hard to treat and are dangerous
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Biology 40s Exam - Kingdom Monera