Geography key terms

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  1. Import
    product or service that is brought into a country from another country
  2. export
    product or service produced in one country for sale in another
  3. primary industry
    industry that deals with the production of primary products (mining, logging)
  4. secondary industry
    industry dealing with manufacturing or contruction
  5. tertiary industry
    Industry that provides services rather than goods
  6. quaternary industry
    highly specialized (and usually expensive) knowledge-based technological and support services
  7. gross domestic product (GDP)
    • total value of the goods and services produced within a country per person, excluding transactions with other countries. 
    • Per capita
  8. sustainability
    approach to development that meets the needs of the present without negatively affecting the ability of future generations to meet their needs
  9. Trade surplus
    situation in which a country has bought less in goods or services that it has sold in exports
  10. trade deficit
    situation in which a country has bought more in goods or services that it has sold in exports
  11. tariff
    Tax charged on goods imported into a country to protect local industries from foreign competition
  12. human development index (HDI)
    index that includes measures of health, education, and wealth to indicate a country's level of human development
  13. Raw materials
    Something used by an industry to be processed into a more finished state
  14. manufacturing
    processing raw materials into a more finished state

    e.g. Iron ore-> iron ingot
  15. Sustained yeild management
    use of a renewable resource at a rate that allows the resource to renew itself
  16. conventional energy source
    well established source of energy such as oil, natural gas, coal, hydro, and nuclear
  17. alternatuve energy source
    non conventional energy source such as solar, wind, and biomass
  18. global village
    idea that the world is becoming like one large village because of improvements in communication
  19. non-governmental organization (NGO)
    Organization that is not part of a government and provides a wide range of aid around the world
  20. multinational corporations (MNC)
    corporations that have operations in countries outside of their country if origin that are also known as transnational corporations
  21. Earth's internals structure
    Crust: hard and rigid, it's earth's outermost and thinnest layer, only 5 km thick under the oceans and averaging 30 km thick under the continents

    Mantle: Subdivided into two regions, upper and lower, this dense layer made of hot, semi-solid rock is located directly below the crust and is about 2900 km thick

    Outer Core: The outer core is the only liquid layer of the earth - a sea of mostly iron and nickel. it is roughly 2890 to 5150 km below the surface and is about 2300 km thick

    Inner Core: An extremely hot, solid sphere of mostly iron and nickel at the centre of the earth. it is 5150 to 6378 km below the surface and about 1200 km in diameter.
  22. Crust and Mantle structure
    lithosphere:  made up of the crust and a tiny bit of the upper mantle, this layer is divided into several constantly (very slow) moving plates

    Asthenosphere: The plates of the lithosphere move on this hot, malleable semi-liquid zone in the upper mantle, directly under the lithosphere
  23. Pangaea Ultima
    the future super-continent
  24. continental crust
    • -under continents
    • -thicker (35 to 70 km)
    • -older
  25. oceanic crust
    • -thinner (7 to 10 km)
    • -under oceans
  26. convergent plate boundaries
    two plates pushing towards each other

    e.g. eurasian and indian plates
  27. divergent plate boundaries
    two plates moving apart from each other

    e.g. african and arabian plates
  28. Transform plate boundaries
    two plates slide past each other

    e.g. pacific and Australian plates
  29. Volcanic Arc
    arc-shaped chain of volcanoes formed above a subduction zone
  30. trench
    steep-sided depression in the ocean floor
  31. magma
    molten rock, gases, and solid crystals and minerals
  32. volcano
    a vent in the earth's surface through which magma and gases erupt
  33. subduction zone
    the area where one plate is being puller under the edge of another
  34. mountain
    high, large mass of earth and rock that rises above the earth's surface with steep or sloping sides
  35. mountain range
    a series of connected mountains close to each other geographically of of common origin
  36. boundary
    the border between two tectonic plates
  37. seafloor spreading
    when plates move apart and create a crack in the sea food through which magma oozes
  38. mid ocean ridge
    a raised ridge in the ocean caused by magma oozing from between plates
  39. fault
    crack of fracture in the earth's crust caused by two plates grinding against each other
  40. earthquake
    sudden movement of plates caused by tension between two plates
  41. strike slip fault
    the motion of two plates at a transform boundary
  42. Geologic time scale
    • cenozoic era (66 may to present - 1.4%)
    • -human being
    • -age of mammals
    • -modern life forms evolve
    • -ice sheets cover most of n. america
    • -continents take on present shapes
    • -formation of rocky mountains complete

    • mosozoic era (245 to 66 mya - 3.9%)
    • -age of reptiles and dinosaurs (mesosaur)
    • -first flowering plants
    • -first birds and mammals
    • -formation of rocky mountains begins
    • -innutian mountains form
    • -shallow seas cover interior of n. america at various times

    • paleozoic era (570 to 245 may - 7%)
    • -age of amphibians and fish
    • -first insects
    • -large swamps form coal
    • -first plants and animals appear on land
    • -periods where shallow seas cover large parts of n. america
    • -lowlands and Appalachians form

    • pre-cambian era (4.6 billion to 570 may
    • 87.6%)
    • -first single and multi-celled organisms appear
    • -pre-cambrian shields form (Canadian shield, Brazilian, african, Australian)
    • -time of major volcanic activity
  43. Cenozoic era
    • quaternary (1.8 may to present)
    • tertiary (65-1.8 mya)
  44. Mesozoic era
    • cretaceous (146-64 mya)
    • jurassic (200-146 mya)
    • triassic (251-200 mya)
  45. paleozoic era
    • permian (299-251 mya)
    • carboniferous (359-299 mya)
    • devonian (416-359 mya)
    • sliurian (444-416 mya)
    • ordovician (488-444 mya)
    • cambrian (542-488 mya)
  46. precambrian era
    precambrian (4570-542 mya)
  47. major tectonic plates
    • 1. Eurasion plate
    • 2. north american plate
    • 3. south american plate
    • 4. pacific plate
    • 5. antarctic plate
    • 6. african plate
    • 7. nazca plate
    • 8. Australian indian plate
    • Image Upload 1
  48. rock cycle
    • 1. Magma rock
    • -layers of rock below the earth's surface that's melted
    • -when forced to the earth's surface it's called lava

    • 2. Igneous rock
    • -when mama cools and turns to hard rock
    • -all rock originates from igneous rock
    • -granite (e.g. canadian shield)

    • 3. rock usually formed in layers from the compression of sediments over millions of years
    • -erosion deposits
    • -e.g. limestone

    • 4. metamorphic rock
    • -when sedimentary and igneous rock are subjected to great heat and pressure
    • -layers of rock
    • -e.g. gems
  49. how glaciers are born
    • -more snow builds up in winter than melts in summer
    • -snow compresses
  50. how glaciers move
    pressure underneath glacier + gravity = moving glacier
  51. alpine glacier
    • a glacier that is located in a mountainous region that moves slowly downwards
    • -moves due to gravity
  52. continental glacier
    • a glacier that occupies a large piece of land
    • -moves due to their own weight
  53. isostatic rebound
    the earth's crust is depressed as a result of the weight of the ice. when the ice melts the surface slowly bounces back. it is still going on today.
  54. climate math
    • TOTAL yearly precipitation:
    • -add each month's precipitation total together

    • AVERAGE yearly temperature:
    • -add the temperatures for each month together, than divide by 12

    • -calculate the difference between your warmest and coldest monthly temperature
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Geography key terms
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