1.4 Special Senses

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  1. What is gustation?
    Sense of taste
  2. What is the receptor organ for gustation
    Taste bud
  3. What is the receptor type of gustation
    • Chemoreceptor
    • *gustatory hairs located on taste buds feel this
  4. Most taste buds are found on Padilla of the tongue.. which 3 are they?
    -fungiform papillae

    -foliate Papillae

    -circumvallate papillae
  5. Which of the 3 Papillae contains the highest contraction of taste buds
    Fungiform Papillae
  6. Which has the least concentration of taste buds from the 3 papillae
    Circumvallate papillae
  7. Which cortex determines flavor?
    Gustatory cortex
  8. Where are the taste buds embedded in?
    Epithelium of tongue
  9. What are taste buds formed by?
    Taste cells
  10. Nerves which transmit taste) CN VII
    Anterior 2/3 of tongue
  11. Nerves which transmit taste) CN IX
    Posterior 1/3 of tongue
  12. Nerves which transmit taste) CN X (2)
    Pharynx and epiglottis
  13. What is olfaction?
    Sense of smell
  14. What is the receptor organ for olfaction?
    Olfactory cell (CN I) that are located in olfactory epithelium
  15. What receptor type for olfaction?
  16. What does the olfactory epithelium cover?
    Superior nasal concha
  17. Steps to how inhaled air molecules travel to cortex
    -olfacotr receptor cells within olfactory epithelium pick up the air molecules. They send down the signal down their axons that pass through cribriform plate. It synapses with mitral cells in olfactory bulb which the sends the signals down the tract. Tract sends it down to the cortex
  18. What do olfactory glands do?
    deliver a mucus product to the surface of olfactory epithelium that traps airborne chemicals in order for them to interact with the nerve fibers of CN I
  19. What does the levator palpebrae superiors muscle do?
    Lifts the upper eyelid for opening of the eyes
  20. What is the palpebral fissure?
    Eye slit
  21. Accessory structures of the eye (5)



    -lacrimal apparatus

    -extra-ocular muscles of the eye
  22. What do eyelids do? (2)
    -protect the eyes

    -provides lubrication across eye surface
  23. What is another word for eyelids?
  24. What does orbicularis oculi muscle do?
    -closes eye tightly when activated
  25. What innervates the orbicularis oculi muscle?
    CN VII
  26. What causes the eye to close gently?
    Levator superiors palpebrae muscle
  27. How do facial expression muscles work?
    They change our expressions because they are connected to the dermis of the skin instead of bone so it allows the muscles to contort different expressions
  28. Lacrimal apparatus
    -produces tears
  29. What controls the lacrimal apparatus?
    • Parasympathetic nervous system
    • **fibers are carried by facial nerve
    • **that's why CN VII called tears & snot CN
    • ***ex) runny nose after crying
  30. What does lacrimal gland do?
    Continually produces tears
  31. Process of tears to getting through the nose
    -they are produced by the lacrimal gland. It spreads out and the lacrimal canal shuttles it to the lacrimal sac. The lacrimal sac releases it through the nasolacrimal duct. This duct runs down the nose releasing the tears
  32. Where do extrinsic muscle of the eye insert into
  33. What are the 4 rectus muscles of the eye?



    -lateral rectus
  34. Which are the 2 oblique extrinsic muscles of the eye?
    -superior and inferior oblique
  35. What do extrinsic muscles of the eye do?
    They move the eyeball
  36. Which of the extrinsic muscles of the eye does not originate from the angular ring?
    Inferior oblique muscle
  37. Action of superior rectus
    Elevates the eye
  38. Action of inferior rectus
    Depresses the eye
  39. Action of medial rectus
    Moves eye medially
  40. Action of lateral rectus
    Moves eye laterally
  41. Action of superior oblique
    Moves eye down and outward
  42. Actions of inferior oblique
    Moves eye up and outward
  43. Where does inferior oblique originate from?
    Medial orbit
  44. Which extrinsic eye muscles does the CN III innervates (4)
    -superior rectus

    -inferior rectus

    -medial rectus

    -inferior oblique
  45. Which nerve innervates lateral rectus
    CN VI
  46. Which nerve innervates superior oblique ?
    CN IV
  47. How are compartments of the eye separated by?
    Lens of the eye
  48. What is the anterior segment filled with?
    Aqueous humor
  49. What is the posterior segment filled with?
    Vitreous humor
  50. What's the difference between aqueous and vitreous humor?
    Aqueous humor is constantly being renewed while vitreous last a lifetime
  51. What are the 3 tunics of the eyeball?


  52. Which is the most superficial tunic?
    Fibrous tunic
  53. What 2 structures are in the fibrous tunic?

  54. Which 4 structures are in vascular tunic?



    -ciliary body
  55. What is the receptor organ for vision?
    • retina
    • *contains rods and cones
  56. What is iris?
    The donut shaped figure
  57. What is the pupil?
    The center of the donut (iris)
  58. What does the pupil do to the light?
    • It allows light to go in
    • *dilate or constrict
  59. What can lens do?
    It can alter the path of light after it passes through the pupil
  60. What does central artery and vein of the retina do?
    Delivers blood supply to 2/3 of nervous tunic
  61. What is the optic disc? (2)
    -blind spot

    -exit of optic nerve
  62. What is the macula lutea? (2)
    -Central area termed the fovea

    • -greatest visual acuity
    • *contains only cones
  63. What are the 2 layers of the nervous tunic?
    -nervous layer

    -pigmented layer
  64. What does nervous layer contain?
    -photoreceptors cells (rods and cones) for transducing light
  65. Rods are used for
    Dim light
  66. Cones are used for
    • Bright light
    • *color receptors
  67. What does the pigmented layer do? (3)
    -absorbs light

    -aids photoreceptor renewal

    -stores Vitamin A
  68. Is the pigmented layer fused with nervous layer?
    • no it is not
    • *so retina may detach
  69. Which cells send fibers to optic disc to form optic nerve?
    Ganglion cells
  70. Optic nervous structure diagram) which eye contributes to each structure : right optic nerve
    Right eye
  71. Optic nervous structure diagram) which eye contributes to each structure : right optic chiasm
    Both eyes
  72. Optic nervous structure diagram) which eye contributes to each structure : right optic tract
    Both eyes
  73. Optic nervous structure diagram) which eye contributes to each structure : right optic radiations
    • Both eyes
    • **these take signals to optic cortex
  74. Where do optic nerves mix together?
    Optic chiasm
  75. Where is auditory and vestibular systems located?
    inner ear
  76. What receptor type for auditory and vestibular?
  77. Which nerve innervates the auditory and vestibular?
  78. What is the auricle/ pinna?
    • Elastic cartilage structure
    • *what forms the "ear"
    • **the shape of this structure helps to deliver sound waves to the external auditory canal
  79. What 2 parts make up the outer ear?

    -external auditory meatus/canal
  80. What does the external auditory canal do?
    Directs the sound waves to bounce off the tympanic membrane
  81. What does the middle ear contain?
    • Tympanic cavity
    • *air filled space
  82. Middle ear) what are the 3 ossicles?


  83. Middle ear) important structures (4)
    -oval window

    -round window

    -Eustachian tube

  84. What does the oval window do?
    Articulates with stapes
  85. What does the round window do?
    -serves as pressure release for the organ of hearing, cochlea
  86. What do ossicles do?
    Transduce sound waves into mechanical vibrations
  87. Which of the ossicles articulates with the tympanic membrane?
  88. Which of the ossicles articulates with oval window of cochlea?
  89. 3 structures in inner ear

    -vestibule and semicircular canals

  90. Inner ear: what happens to CN VIII here?
    • It splits into 2 to innervates both receptor organs
    • *vestibular and cochlear nerve
  91. Cochlea) 2 external features
    -oval window articulates with stapes

    -round window acts as a pressure release
  92. Cochlea) internal feature
    Cochlear duct contains organ of corti to transduce vibrations into sound
  93. What is the receptor of sound?
    Organ of corti within the cochlea
  94. What innervates the receptor of hearing
    • VIII
    • *the cochlear branch
  95. Where is the organ of corti located?
    In cochlear duct
  96. Where does the organ of corti rests?
    On the basilar membrane
  97. What does the organ of corti contain?
    Cell receptors for sound
  98. Tectorial membrane and outer hair cells
    The Tectorial membrane moves by the sound waves simulating the hair cells which then stimulate the cochlear nerve below
  99. What are both vestibule and semicircular canals involved in?
    Maintaining equilibrium
  100. What does the vestibule contain?
    The maculae within saccule and utricle
  101. What does vestibule respond to? (2)
    -Static/linear forces of head position

    -gravitational pull
  102. What do semi-circular canals contain?
    Each contains the Cristal ampullaris with Cuppula
  103. What do semicircular canals respond to
    • Dynamic/angular movements of the head
    • *suddenly rotaing head
  104. What does macula of utricle respond to...(2)
    -horizontal movements

    -tilting head side to side
  105. What does macula of saccule respond to?
    • Vertical movements
    • *falling down or straight up
  106. structure of macula) otoliths
    Crystalline structures within inner ear which are embedded in otolith membrane
  107. structure of macula) otolith membrane
    • When we move, the membrane moves, ruffling the hair cells underneath
    • *this is sensed as changed position
    • *each hair cell has nerve fiber attached to it
  108. What are the 3 semicircular canals?


  109. What do the semicircular canals contain?
    structure of Crista ampularis
  110. What does the Crista ampularis respond to?
    Changes in velocity of head movements
  111. What is significant about the position of the 3 semicircular canals?
    They are all oriented to orthogonal direction so when the combined feedback of the canals allow it to interpret 3 dimensions angular movement
  112. What occurs when cupulla & Crista interact?
    • It allows for transduction of angular head movements
    • *similar to the otolith mebrane
  113. What does Crista ampularis contain and what are they covered by?
    Contains hair cells that are covered in gelatin mass, ampullary cupula
  114. What are the 4 receptor types?



  115. 2 different receptor organs
    -encapsulated or free nerve endings
  116. Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) meissners corpuscles , where are they located?
    Dermal papillae
  117. Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) meissners corpuscles , respond to?
    • -respond to light tough
    • *called 2 point touch
    • **discriminative touch
  118. Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) pacinian corpuscles , where are they located? (2)
    -dermis and hypodermis
  119. Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) pacinian corpuscles, what do they not respond to>?
    • Do not respond to sustained pressure
    • *we forget about sitting down
  120. Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) pacinian corpuscles, what do they respond?
    • Deep pressure
    • *stretch and vibration
    • **on and off touch
  121. somatosensation: general sense of pain) receptor organ
    • Free nerve endings
    • *unencapsulated
  122. somatosensation: general sense of pain) receptor type
    • nociceptors
    • *pain
  123. somatosensation: general sense of pain) 3 types of nociceptors
    • -mechanical
    • *pinch or cut

    • -chemical origin
    • *hot sauce

    • -temperature
    • *hot or cold
  124. What are the 3 levels of sensory neural integration?
    -receptor level

    -circuit level

    -perceptual level
  125. What does receptor level do?
    Sensory reception and transmission to cns
  126. Circuit level
    Processing in ascending pathways
  127. Perceptual level
    Processing in cortical sensory centers
  128. What is used to assess balance disorders?
    • computerize dynamic posturography
    • *CPD
  129. What is the CPD used for?
    Assessment tool to test different centers of balance
  130. Cpd procedure
    Apply different conditions to challenge specific sensory centers
  131. Which 3 sense are tested in CPD


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1.4 Special Senses
Special senses
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