Vertebral column 2: regional features and individual vertebrae

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  1. List the different regions of the vertebral column
    Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal/coccygeal
  2. What is the vertebral formula of the dog?
    C7 T13 L7 S3 CC variable
  3. What are the functions of the cervical region of the vertebral column?
    • Support of the head
    • Movement of the head
    • Protection of ventral neck structures
    • Muscle attachment
  4. To allow for a large range of movement the cervical vertebrae generally have relatively short ...?
    dorsal and transverse spinal processes
  5. What do the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae have to increase the surface area for attachment of ventral neck muscles?
    An extra ventral projection
  6. What feature is present at the base of the transverse process?  What structures run through this in life?
    Transverse foramen.  The vertebral artery and vein run through this.
  7. What is the name of the first cervical vertebrae?
    The atlas
  8. What typical features of vertebrae are not present in the atlas?
    Dorsal spinous process and vertebral body
  9. What are the transverse processes of the atlas called?
    The wings of the atlas
  10. True or false: the wings of the atlas are palpable?
  11. What is the second cervical vertebrae called?
    The axis
  12. What is the extra vertebral body present on the axis called?
  13. The axis has a very prominent dorsal/transverse process?
  14. True or false: the number of thoracic vertebrae corresponds with the number of pairs of ribs?
  15. What are the functions of the thoracic region of the vertebral column?
    • Forms dorsal boundary of thoracic cavity
    • Protects thoracic structures
    • Provides area for muscle attachment
  16. Thoracic vertebrae typically have short ... and long ...?
    short vertebral bodies and long dorsal spinous processes
  17. What direction are the dorsal processes angled in?
    A caudal direction
  18. What are costal fovea present on the thoracic vertebrae?
    Flattened areas that articulate with ribs
  19. In total, how many costal fovea are present on each vertebrae?
  20. Describe how ribs 1-10 articulate with thoracic vertebrae
    The head of the rib articulates with cranial costal fovea of the corresponding the thoracic vertebrae and the caudal costal fovea of the one in front.  The tuberculum of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the corresponding vertebrae
  21. Describe how ribs 11-13 articulate with thoracic vertebrae
    The head and tuberculum articulate with the corresponding vertebrae only
  22. What is the anticlinal vertebra?  What is the significance of this?
    The thoracic vertebra that has a very short, very vertical dorsal spinal process.  The anticlinal vertebra marks the point of transition in the vertebral column from a region of low mobility in the thoracic region to a region of relatively high mobility in the lumbar region.
  23. What is the function of the anticlinal vertebra?
    To prevent overcrowding of the dorsal spinous processes when the vertebral column is hyperextended
  24. The lumbar vertebrae have long ...?
    vertebral bodies and transverse processes
  25. The long transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae provide the origin for which muscles?
    Abdominal wall muscles
  26. The dorsal spinous processes tend to be short/long?
  27. What are the functions of the lumbar vertebrae?
    • Protection of abdominal contents
    • Provides points of attachment for vertebral column muscles and abdominal wall muscles
    • Supports weight of abdominal contents
    • Movement of trunk
  28. The sacral vertebrae fuse to form the ...?
  29. True or false: there are intervertebral disc spaces present between sacral vertebrae?
  30. What structure does the cranial portion of the sacrum articulate with?  What joint does this form?
    Articulates with the wing of the ilium to form the sacroiliac joint
  31. What are the functions of the sacrum?
    • It provides points of origin for some of the extrinsic muscles of the hindlimb 
    • Protects contents of the pelvic cavity
  32. True or false: the spinal cord extends into the coccygeal region of the vertebral column?
    False: the spinal cord does not extend as far caudally as the coccygeal region so the anatomical features of the vertebrae required to protect it are no longer needed
  33. What is the function of coccygeal region?
    Large range of movement for expression, balance, removing flies, etc
Card Set
Vertebral column 2: regional features and individual vertebrae
Vet Med - Module 8
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