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    • Population: 2,64,94,504
    • NMR: 33/1000
    • IMR: 46/1000 [IOM 02]
    • CMR: 54/1000
    • MMR: 229 (281) per lakh [IOM 96]
    • CBR:
    • CDR: 6
    • TFR: 2.6/woman
    • GFR: 117/1000 (????)
    • PGR: 1.35 [IOM 99]
    • Population doubling time = 70/PGR [IOM 00]
    • M:F = 94.16
    • Life Expectancy: 63.7 yrs
    • Literacy rate: 65.9

    Child birth per second in world: 4 [IOM 08] ?????
  2. What are the various stages of demographic cycle?
    • 1. First stage – high stationary – high birth rate, high death rate
    • 2. Second stage – Early expanding – death rates begin to decline while birth rate remains unchanged
    • 3. Third stage – Late expanding – death rate declines further, and the birth rate tends to fall, i.e death rate declines more than birth rate  [AI 09]  Nepal has entered in this phase.
    • 4. Fourth stage – low stationary – low birth and death rate with the result that the population becomes stationary.
    • 5. Fifth stage – the population begins to decline because birth rate is lower than death rate.

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  3. Define population explosion, baby boom and baby bust and population momentum?
    Population explosion - a rapid increase in population attributed esp. to an accelerating birthrate, an increase in life expectancy.  If population is not controlled by  fertility methods, there can be population explosion. [IOM 2057] 

    Baby boom -  a period of sharp increase in the birthrate, as that in the U.S. following World War II

    Baby bust - A sudden decline in the birthrate, especially the one in the United States from about 1961 to 1981.

    Population momentum - It is the tendency for population growth to continue beyond the time that replacement-level fertility has been achieved [IOM 2064] because of the relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years.
  4. Within how many days should a birth and death should be registered?
    Birth event should  be registered within 14 days [AI 94]  and death should be registered in 7 days [AI 99].
  5. What is demographic bookkeeping equation?
    • Demographic bookkeeping (balancing)  is used in the identification of four main components of population growth during any given time interval. The demographic bookkeeping equation is as follows:
    • P2 = P1 + (B - D) + (Mi - Mo)
    • The four components being studied by this equation are Population Growth (P1, P2), Births (B), Deaths (D), and In (Mi) and Out (Mo) Migration. [IOM 11]  Meaning, the population at any time is equal to the earlier population plus the excess of births over deaths in the time, plus the amount of in-migration minus the amount of out-migration.
  6. Which  of the following statics should be adjusted for age to allow comparision? [AI 12]
    A) Crude mortality rate 
    B) Perinatal mortality rate 
    C) Age Specific fertility rate 
    D) Infant mortality rate
    A) Crude mortality rate

    Mortality rates of two countries are not comparable because these populations have different age compositions. [AI 07,11]
    Age adjustment or Age standardization is required to compare crude death rates from two populations. 

    Age adjustment is not required when 
    - Population with similar age distribution are compared (age adjustment does not produce a rate that is substantially different from the crude rate) 
    - Populations with narrow, same age range are compared (Infant mortality rate, Perinatal Mortality rate, Age Specific Fertility Rate)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. How do you calculate Birth rate?  [AIIMS 00]
    The number of live births per 1000 estimated mid-year population in a given year.
  8. What is general fertility rate? [AIIMS 97]
    It is the number of live births per 1000 women in the reproductive age group (15 - 44or 49 years ) in a given year.

    General fertility rate is better measure of fertility than the crude birth rate, because the denominator is restricted to the number of woman in childbearing age rather than the whole population.
  9. Regarding crude birth rate, all are true except [AI 09]
    A) Excludes the still births 
    B) Better measure of fertility than the general fertility rate
    C) Indicator of fertility 
    D) Unaffected by age distribution
    B) Better measure of fertility than the general fertility rate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What is total fertility rate?
    It is the average number of children a woman would have if she were to pass through her reproductive years hearing children at the same rates as the women now in each age group. TFR gives the approximate magnitude of completed family size.  [AI 96,08, IOM 02]
  11. What is age specific fertility rate?
    • Age-specific fertility Rate defined as the "number of live births in a year to 1000 women in any specified age-group". The age-specific fertility rates throw light on the fertility pattern. They are also sensitive indicators of family planning achievement. It is the best index to assess recent fertility pattern. [AIIMS 1996]
    • Highest age specific fertility rate in SAARC countries is found in age group of 20-24 years. [IOM 2065]
  12. What is family size and completed family size?
    • While in common parlance, family size refers to the total number of persons in a family. In demography family size means the total number of children a woman has borne at a point in time. [KARNARTAKA 01] 
    •  The completed family size indicates the total number of children borne by a woman during her child bearing age, which is generally assumed to be between 15-45 years. The total fertility rate gives the approximate magnitude of completed family size. [UP 01]
  13. What is case fatality rate?
    • Case fatality rate represents the killing power of a disease and measures severity of a disease. [AI 01,05,11, KARNARAKA 01, AIIMS 04]
    • It is simply the ratio [AI 97] of deaths to cases. It is calculated as [IOM 09]: 
    • = (Total number of deaths due to particular disease)/(Total number of cases due to the same disease) X 100
  14. In a population of 1000 people, 400 persons caught malaria, 50 died. What is case fatality rate? [IOM 04]
    50/400 X 100 = 12.5%
  15. How do  you calculate maternal mortality rate? [RAJASTHAN 01,AI 10]
    Maternal death is defined as "death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of duration and site of pregnancy,  from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes".

    MMR = Maternal deaths/live births [AI 11] X 1,00,000 [IOM 01]

    • In the developed countries, MMR has declined significantly. Because of decline, they use the multiplying factor 1,00,000 instead of 1,000 to avoid fractions in calculating MMR.
    • Multiplying factor of 1000 can be used where MMR is high.
  16. What is Perinatal mortality rate?
    • Perinatal period lasts from 28 weeks of gestation to the seventh day after birth. [AI 92,10].   
    • Perinatal mortality includes both late fetal deaths (still births) and early neonatal deaths. 
    • Still births/late fetal deaths can be defined as deaths of fetus weighting 1000g  at birth or death after 28 weeks of gestation while early neonatal deaths are defined as deaths during first seven days of births. 

    PMR = perinatal deaths/Live births X 1000.
  17. How do you calculate  stillbirth rate?
    It is calculated as death of a fetus weighting 1000 gm (this is equivalent to 28 weeks of gestation) [AI 94]  or more occurring during one year in every 1000 total births (live births plus stillbirths).  

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  18. How do you calculate infant mortality rate?
    (Total number of deaths of children < 1year of age in one year/ Number of live births in the same year) X 1000
  19. What are different deaths  in infant mortality?
    • Neonatal death (<28 days) [IOM 2063] - early neonatal (<7days) and late neonatal death (7-28 days). 
    • Post neonatal death (28 days-1year)  [IOM 12] 

    [It doesnot include Perinatal mortality [AI 2005]  - perinatal mortality includes still birth and early neonatal death]
  20. What is standard population?
    • A "standard population" is defined as one odor which the number in each age and sex group are known.
    • The choice of the standard population is arbitrary.
    • National population may be used as standard population, but certainly is not taken as the standard population always. [AI 06]
  21. About direct standardization, all are true except: [AI 02]
    A. A standard population is needed
    B. Age specific death rates are not needed
    C. Two populations are compared
    D. Population should be comparable
    B. Age specific death rates are not needed

    "Age adjustment" or age standardization is used which removes the confounding effect of different age structures in comparing two populations.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. What are most common causes of maternal mortality in Nepal?
    • Hemorrhage - most common  [AI 08] 
    • Anemia
    • Sepsis 
    • Obstructed labor

    (In india also, most common cause of maternal mortality is hemorrhage).
  23. What are the common causes of neonatal mortality?
    • Low birth weight  - most common cause [AIIMS 03,04,05, UP 93] 
    • Birth injury and difficult labor
    • Congenital malformations
  24. What are the common causes of post neonatal mortality? [AI 02]
    • Diarrheal diseases 
    • Acute respiratory infections
    • Other infectious diseases
    • Malnutrition
  25. What are the leading causes of mortality in under five children in developing countries?
    • Acute respiratory infections - most common cause [AIIMS 05] 
    • Neonatal and perinatal causes 
    • Diarrhoea alone 
    • Malaria
  26. How do you calculate Child Survival Index?
    A child survival rate per 1000 births can be simply calculated by subtracting the Under 5 mortality rate [PGI 01] from 1000. Dividing this figure by 10 shows the percentage of those who survive at the age of 5 years.
  27. How do you calculate the dependency ratio? [AIIMS 03]
    The ratio  of  the combined age group <15 years plus > 65 years  to the 15-65 years age group is referred as the total dependency ratio.
  28. What is nuclear family and New family?
    Nuclear family - consists of the married couple, and their children while they are still regarded  as dependents. 

    New  families -  is applied  to those under 10 years duration and  consists of parents and  children [AIIMS 03]
  29. What is DALY?
    • DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years) expresses years of life lost due to premature death and years lived with disability [AI 12] adjusted for severity of disability. 
    • DALY is a measure of burden of disease in a defined population and the effectiveness of interventions. 
    • One DALY is 'one lost year of healthy life'.
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