BIO-1120: Chapter 9

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  1. a Cell
  2. Adenylyl Cyclase
    an enyzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to an extracellular signal
  3. Apoptosis
    a type of programmed cell death, which is brought about by activation of enzymes that break down many chemical components of the cell
  4. α Cell
  5. Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
    cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intercellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells; it is also a regulator of some bacterial operations
  6. Diacylglycerol (DAG)
    a second messenger produced by the cleavage of the phospholipid PIP2 in the plasma membrane
  7. G Protein
    a GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G protein-coupled receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell
  8. G Protein-Coupled Receptor
    a signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating a G protein; also called a G protein-linked receptor
  9. Hormones
    in multicellular organisms, one of many types of secreted chemicals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells in other parts of the organism, changing the target cell's fuctioning
  10. Inositol Triphosphate (IP3)
    a second messenger that functions as a intermediate between certain signaling moelcules and a subsequent second messenger, Ca2+, by causing a rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+  concentration
  11. Ligand
    a molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one
  12. Ligand-Gated Ion Channel
    a transmembrane protein containing a pore that opens or closes as it changes shape in response to a signaling molecule (ligand), allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions; also called an ionotropic receptor
  13. Phosphorylation Cascade
    a series of protein phosphorlyations occurring sequentially in which each protein kinase phosphorylates the next, activating it; often found in signaling pathways
  14. Protein Kinase
    an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorlating the protein
  15. Protein Phosphatases
    an enzyme that removes phosphate groups from (dephosphorylates) proteins, often functioning to reverse the effect of a protein kinase
  16. Reception
    in cellular communication, the first step of a signaling pathway in which a signaling molecule is detected by a receptor molecule on or in the cell
  17. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK)
    a receptor protein spanning the plasma membrane, the cytoplasmic (intracellular) part of which can catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine on another protein; receptor tyrosine kinases often response to the binding of a signaling molecule by dimerizing and the phosphorlyating a tyrosine on the cytoplasmic portion of the other receptor in the dimer
  18. Scaffolding Protein
    a type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached, increasing the efficiency of signal transduction
  19. Second Messengers
    a small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as a calcium ion (Ca2+) or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signaling molecule bound by a signal receptor protein
  20. Signal Transduction Pathway
    a series of steps linking a mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulus to a specific cellular response
  21. Transduction
    (1) a process in which phages (viruses) carry bacterial DNA from one bacterial cell to another; when these two cells are members of different species, transduction results in horizontal gene transfer; (2) in cellular communication, the conversion of a signal from outside the cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response; also called signal transduction
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BIO-1120: Chapter 9
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