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  1. Linked genes
    • – genes on the same chromosome won’t necessarily undergo independent assortment
    • -the closer together on the chromosome the greater the linkage between genes
    • -the likelihood of recombination occurring between two genes increases with distance between genes
  2. Y-linked traits
    • – rare as there are very few genes on the Y-chromosome
    • -Y-linked disorders are passed on to male offspring only (100%)
  3. X-linked traits
    – males only receive a single copy of the X-chromosome (from their mother)
  4. Turner Syndrome (X)
    – offspring (female) have only a single X chromosome resulting from nondisjunction
  5. Kleinfelter Syndrome (XXY)
    – offspring (male) have an extra X chromosome resulting from nondisjunction
  6. Point mutation
    – a single base substitution
  7. Missense mutation
    – point mutation leading to a codon coding for a different amino acid
  8. Nonsense mutation
    – point mutation leading to a premature stop codon
  9. Frameshift mutation
    – insertion or deletion leading to a change in the reading frame of a gene
  10. Mutations in replication
    – low level of ‘natural’ mutations that occur during replication (random error)
  11. Inborn errors of metabolism
    – metabolic disorders caused by mutation (usually of a key enzyme)
  12. Mutagen
    – an agent that causes mutation
  13. Carcinogen
    an agent that can cause cancer (most are mutagens)
  14. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
    allele frequencies remain constant in a gene pool for a population in equilbrium

    • p + q = 1
    • p = frequency of dominant allele
    • q = frequency of recessive allele

    • p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
    • p2 = frequency of homozygous dominant genotype
    • 2pq = frequency of heterozygous genotype
    • q2 = frequency of homozygous recessive genotype
  15. Testcross
    – crossing a dominant phenotype individual with a recessive to determine the dominant genotype
  16. Backross
    – crossing a hybrid (such as the F1) with one of the parents
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