Syphilis 6.3

  1. Syphilis is caused by a spirochete bacteria called what?
    Treponema Pallidum
  2. direct examination of treponema is performed with:
    darkfield microscopy
  3. what type of motility does T. pallidum have?
    corkscrew motility
  4. T. Pallidum has _ to __ coils that are _ to __ um long.
    • 8 to 24
    • 6 to 15
  5. true or flase
    T. Pallidum is not grown on cultivated media
  6. this varient of T. pallidum is found in eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans and cooler areas of North Africa.
  7. this disease is caused by T. pertenue and is found in the carribean, latin america, central africa and the far east.
  8. This disease is caused by T. carateum and found in latin america, and infection is limited to skin.
  9. what is the name of the lesion that develops at the point of inoculation in syphilis.
  10. how often is the Chancre located around the genitalia?
    90% of the time
  11. Chancre will persist for ______ weeks and will be healed in _______ weeks.
    • 1-5
    • 4-6
  12. how long after the appearance of the chancre does symptoms of secondary syphilis occur.
    2-8 weeks
  13. Secondary syphilis has symptoms of a _________ _________.
    General Illness
  14. in what stage of syphilis does lyphadenopathy and skin lesions on the hands and feet occur.
  15. secondary syphilis will resolve itself in how many weeks even without treatment?
    2-6 weeks
  16. Latent syphilis occurs when.
    two to four years of infection
  17. after four years of latency _______ are rare.
  18. this stage of syphilis is characterized by the presence of destructive granulomas called gummas.
    Tertiary (Late) syphilis
  19. in what stage of syphilis do spirochetes involve brain tissue causing paresis, personality changes, dementia, and delusional states.
    Tertiar (late)
  20. this is caused by maternal spirochetemia and transplacental transmission of microorganism.
    congenital syphilis
  21. late congenital syphilis may manifest what two signs and symptoms?
    • interstitial keratitis
    • nerve deafness
  22. saddle-nose deformity is seen in what type of syphilis.
    congenital syphilis
  23. these tests are designed to detect Reagin, an antibody-like substance.
    non-treponemal Tests
  24. this is a carbon particle antigen used to detect the presence or reagin.
  25. what are the two nontreponemal tests?
    • Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR)
    • Venarial Disease Research Lab (VDRL)
  26. these are used to confirm a reactive non treponemal test.
    Treponemal Test
  27. Treponemal tests are used to detect the presence of what?
    T. Pallidum antibiotics
  28. Treponemal tests use what to detect T. pallidum antibodies?
    killed T. pallidum
  29. what are the two treponemal tests?
    • fluorescent treponema pallidum antibody absorption (FTA-ABS)
    • microhemagglutination treponema pallidum (MHA-TP)
  30. in RPR if reagin is present __________ occurs
  31. what is the minimum amount of serum needed to perform an RPR test?
  32. how are RPR specimens stored?
  33. how long is unopened RPR antigen stable for?
    12 Months
  34. how long is opend RPR antigen stable for if refrgerated at 2-8oC.
    3 months or untill expiration date
  35. what gauge needle is used to perform RPR testing?
    18 guage without bevel
  36. The needle used for RPR should deliver what amount of antigen per mL.
    60gtts +/- 2gtts
  37. what quantity of serum do the RPR Dispenstirs delvier?
    0.05ml or 50ul
  38. At what speed should the rotator rotate if performing RPR testing.
    100 RPM
  39. what three things should be performed prior to RPR testing?
    • Controls
    • Calibrate the needle
    • Calibrate the rotator
  40. medium to large agglutination in an RPR result is called ________.
  41. no agglutination in an RPR result is considered _________.
  42. slight agglutination in RPR result is considered __________.
    minimal reactive
  43. in what test is a patient's serum heat inactivated and mixed with a buffered saline suspension of cardiolipin-lecithin-cholesterol antigen.
  44. in VDRL how is the mixture examined for flocculation.
  45. what is the rotator speed when performing VDRL?
    180 RPM
  46. This is the most sensitive serological procedure in the detection of primary syphilis.
  47. FTA-ABS has ____ sensitivity in diagnosing tertiary (late) syphilis.
  48. in FTA-ABS a patient's heat inactivated serum is allwed to react with an extract of ___________ that has been fixed to the slide
    T. pallidum
  49. How is serum heat inactivated?
    • heat at 56oC for 30 minutes
    • 10 min if inactiveated more than four hours ago
  50. what is added to slide so the antigen antibody reaction is visible in FTA-ABS?
    Fluorescent Anti-Human Globulin (AHG)
  51. what does AHG bind with if the FTA-ABS reaction is present?
    binds to the antibody
  52. If T. pallidum antibodies are present in FTA-ABS, what will the slide look like?
    the slide will fluoresce or glow when viewed under a fluorescent microscope
  53. in what test are red blood cells sensitied with T. pallidum?
    microhemagglutination treponema pallidum (MHA-TP)
  54. in MHA-TP, if antibody is present, it will bind to antigens causing what?
  55. if positive what will be the appearance of the micro-dilution well in MHA-TP?
    agglutinated particles will spread evenly in the well.
  56. if negative what will the appearance of an MHA-TP sample be?
    non agglutinated particles will be in a button at the bottom of the well.
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Syphilis 6.3