Alpine Terminology

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  1. 6 Types of Glaciers:
    • 1. Valley Glacier
    • 2. Cirque Glacier
    • 3. Hanging Glacier
    • 4. Piedmont Glacier
    • 5. Retreation Glacier
    • 6. Surging Glacier
  2. Valley Glacier
    Flows down a valley
  3. Cirque Glacier
    Flows down a bowl
  4. Hanging Glacier
    Forms on a cliff or ridgeline
  5. Piedmont Glacier
    Formed by one or more valley glaciers. Spread out over a large area
  6. Retreation Glacier
    Annual melt of entire glacier exceeds the flow of ice
  7. Surging Glacier
    Annual flow of the ice exceeds the melt
  8. 1. Firn
    Made of compacted granular snow (snow that is at least 1 year on the glacier, building blocks for glacier ice to form).
  9. 2. Accumulation Zone:
    Area where glacier is snow covered throughout the year. Snowfall exceeds melt.
  10. 3. Ablation Zone
    area where Snow melts in the summer. Melt equals or exceeds snowfall.
  11. 4. Firn Line
    Line separating accumulation and ablation zones (can change annually due to weather)
  12. 5. Bergshrund
    Large crevasses at head of glacier caused by separation of active (flowing) and inactive (stationary) ice.
  13. 6. Moat
    Crevasse formed along the sides an/or headwall of the glacier between moving glacier ice and rock (formed by heat reflected from the valley wall)
  14. 7. Crevasse
    Split or crack in glacier surface (formed when glacier moves over irregularly in the bed surface)
  15. 8. Transverse Crevasses
    Perpendicular to flow of glacier. Normally found where glacier flows overs a slope with a gradient change of 3 degrees or more.
  16. 9. Longitudinal Crevasses
    Parallel to flow of glacier. Normally found where glacier widens
  17. 10. Diagonal Crevasses
    At an angle to flow of glacier. Normally found along edges where glacier makes a bend
  18. 11. Snow Bridge
    Snow covers over Crevasse
  19. 12. Icefalls
    Jumble of criss-cross crevasses.  Large ice towers.   Normally found where glacier flows over a slope with a gradient change of 25 degrees or more
  20. 13. Seracs
    large pinnacles or towers of ice. Normally found on ice falls or on hanging glaciers.
  21. 14. Ice Avalanches
    Falling chunks of ice Normally found near icefalls or hanging glaciers.
  22. 15. Moraine
    Accumulation f rock or debris on glacier. Cause by rock fall or avalanche of valley walls.
  23. 16. Lateral Moraine
    Formed on sides of glaciers
  24. 17. Medial Moraine
    Found in middle of glacier (formed as 2 glaciers come together or as glacier moves around a central peak).
  25. 18. Terminal Moraine
    Found at base of glacier (Formed as moraines meet at snout or terminus of glacier)
  26. 19. Ground Moraine
    Rocky debris extending out from terminus of glacier (formed as glacier retreats)
  27. 20. Nunatak
    Rock projection protruding through the glacier. Glacier flows around
  28. 21. Ice Mill
    Hole in glacier (formed by swirling water on surface)
  29. 22. Pressure ridges
    Wavelike ridges on glacier. Normally found after glacier has flowed over icefalls.
  30. 23. Glacier Window
    Opening at snout of the glacier. (point where water runs out of the glacier)
  31. 24. Glacial Streams
    Found in valleys below glaciers and many braided channels
Card Set
Alpine Terminology
Glacier and Alpine Terrain Terminology
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