Geography flashcards - keywords.txt

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    • Braiding
    • Sub-dividing of a river channel, a characteristic of a river with a variable discharge
  1. Channel roughness
    Measurement of the smoothness of the wetted perimeter and the extent to which rocks protrude into the flow of a river. A smooth profile will result in little turbulence and a high velocity
  2. Corrosion
    River erosion whereby transported particles grind away at the river bed and banks
  3. Deltas
    An area of deposition (usually mud and sand) at the mouth of a river. Two common types of delta are arcuate (e.g. Nile) and birds foot delta (e.g. Mississippi)
  4. Discharge
    The volume of water passing a given point in a given period of time, usually expressed in cumecs (cubic metres per second) and calculated as; cross sectional area times velocity
  5. Drainage basin
    Area of land, bordered by a watershed, drained by a river and its tributaries
  6. Flooding
    Inundation of land not normally under water. E.g. River floodplain
  7. Floodplains
    Extensive, flat land immediately adjacent to a river that is prone to periodic inundation
  8. Gorge
    Steep-sided narrow valley often found immediately downstream from a waterfall
  9. Graded Profile
    Smooth concave long profile of a river that has achieved a state of equilbrium with its environment
  10. Hard Engineering
    Commonly, built structures such as concrete walls designed to resist natural processes
  11. Hjulstrom Curve
    Graph showing the relation between the velocity of a river and the critical velocity needed to pick up (erode) or deposit an individual particle. The graph compromises two curves, one showing the critical erosion velocity, the other the critical deposition velocity
  12. Hydraulic Action
    River erosion involving the sheer force of flowing water
  13. Hydraulic radius
    Measurement of channle efficiency calculated as cross sectional area divided by wetted perimeter. The higher the value, the greater efficiency (less energy lost by friction with bed and banks) of the channel
  14. Incised Meander
    Steep-sided meander formed during a period of significant down-cutting following rejuvenation
  15. Kinetic Energy
    When water moves downhill, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy and used to do WORK
  16. Knick point
    Point in the rivers long profile, often marked by a waterfall, that represents the extent to which a river has re-graded its profile following rejuvenation. Over time, a knick point will gradually migrate upstream due to waterfall retreat.
  17. Levees
    Raised river banks formed by deposition when, in a flood, a river spills over the sides of its channel
  18. Magnitude-Frequency analysis
    Analysis of the magnitude and frequency of events such as floods, which are often characterised by high magnitude, low frequency events (negative association)
  19. Meander
    Sweeping bend or curve in a river, characterised by having a depositional slip off slope on the inside bend and an erosional river cliff on the outside bend
  20. Potential Energy
    Stored energy in a still body of water that has potential to do WORK
  21. Pothole
    Circular hollow or depression formed by erosion in bedrock on a riverbed
  22. Rapids
    Series of relatively small steps in the long profile of a river forming a stretch of turbulent white water
  23. Rejuvenation
    Renewed period of river erosion resulting from a fall in base level (often sea level). As the river cuts down into its channel characteristic features form including incised meanders and river terraces
  24. River Restoration
    Restoring a river channel to its natural course following earlier intervention. E.g. channel straightening. River restoration usually involves soft engineering and aims to improve natural habitats and the amenity value of the river
  25. River terrace
    Abandoned floodplain left perched above the current floddplain following a renewed period of erosion (rejuvenation)
  26. Salinisation
    The deposition of salts on or close to the ground surface commonly associated with high rates of evaporation in arid environments
  27. Soft engineering
    Management approaches that have minimal impacts on the environment and aim to work with natural processes (e.g. planting trees in a river basin to reduce the risk of flooding)
  28. Solution
    Dissolving of chemicals as water flows over soluble rocks
  29. Storm hydrograph
    Line graph showing the discharge of a river over a period of time as it responds to an individual storn event
  30. Velocity
    Speed of flow of a river. The line of fastest flow in a river is called the thalweg
  31. Water Balance
    Audit of water based on the equation; precipitation = runoff + evapotranspiration +/- soil moisture
  32. Waterfall
    Step in the long profile of a river characterised by water cascading over a rock lip into a deep plunge pool
  33. Wetted perimeter
    Length (in metres) of river channel in contact with water at a river cross section
  34. Evaporation
    The process by which liquid water is transformed into water vapour, which is a gas. A large amount of energy is required for this to occur. The energy is usually provided by heat from the sun or by the movement of air (wind)
  35. Evapotranspiration
    The total amount of moisture removed by evaporation and transpiration from a vegetated land surface. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from a plant through stomata (very small pores) in its leaves
  36. Groundwater flow
    The slowest transfer of water within the drainage basin. It provides the main input of water into a river during drought or dry seasons. Groundwater flows at a low but steady rate though bands of sedimentary rock.It can take thousands of years for moisture that seeps into permeable rocks deep under the surface to be returned to the drainage basin hydrological cycle as groundwater flow.
  37. Infiltration
    The passage of water into the soil. Infiltration takes place relatively quickly at the beginning of a strom, but as the soil becomes saturated, the infiltration rate falls rapidly. Infiltration rates are affected by the nature of the soil itself. Sandy soils let more water pass through than clay soils.
  38. Interception
    The process by which raindrops are prevented from directly reaching the soil surface. Leaves, stems and branches on trees, and herbaceous plants and grasses growing close to the surface, intercept water. Evaporation removes some of this moisture from the system and it does not reach the river as runoff.
  39. Percolation
    The downward movement of water within the rick under the soil surface. The rate of percolation depends on the nature of the rock. Some rocks, particularly those of igneous or metamorphic nature, are impermeable so there is no percolation or groundwater flow.
  40. Precipitation
    Water in any form that falls from the atmosphere to the surface of the Earth. It includes rain, snow, sleet and hail.
  41. Runoff
    All the water that enters a river and eventually flows out of the drainage basin. It can be quantified by measuring the discharge of a river
  42. Stemflow
    The water than runs down the stems and branches of plants and trees during and after rain, to reach the ground. It takes place after interception has occurred.
  43. Throughfall
    The water that drips off leaves during a rainstorm. It occurs when more water falls onto the interception layer of the tree canopy that can remain on the leaves
  44. Throughflow
    The water that moves down slope through the subsoil, pulled by gravity. It is particularly effective when underlying impermeable rock prevent percolation.
  45. Deposition
    The laying down of solid material, in the form of sediment, on the bed of a river or on the sea floor
  46. Arches and stacks
    Resulting from marine erosion, an arch is formed when two caves on either side of a headland become connected. When the roof eventually collapses, an isolated rock pillar (stack) is formed.
  47. Barrages
    Dams built across a river estuary, often with movable gates that can be raised to provide protection from flooding caused by high tides or storm surges.
  48. Bars
    Deposit of sand and/or pebbles usually formed parallel to the coastline e.g. across a bay or estuary
  49. Beach nourishment
    Involves sand and/or pebbles being added to a beach to increase its size thereby affording greater protection from flooding and erosion
  50. Blowholes
    Narrow funnel-like feature, often an enlarged joint, in a sea cliff. Water from waves breaking at the foot of the cliff can be SQUIRTED along the crack to create a small geyser-like fountain at the cliff top
  51. Cliff
    Steep, often vertical rock face where the land meets the sea, often undercut at high tide level to form a notch
  52. Coastal system
    Inter-relationships between components in a coastal environment, often sub-divided into inputs, processes and outputs
  53. Constructive waves
    Low, spilling waves characterised by a powerful swash and a weak backwash and responsible for building up a beach.
  54. Destructive waves
    High, plunging waves characterised by a weak swash and powerful backwash and responsible for eroding a beach.
  55. Drift Aligned beach
    Beach deposits (sand and pebbles) that have been transferred along a coastline by longshore drift, often accumulating to form a wide beach at a headland where the lateral drift is interrupted
  56. Dune Regeneration
    Encouraging sand dune stabilisation, often by planting marram grass or building fences
  57. Emergent Coast
    Coastline exhibiting features associated with falling sea levels, e.g. raised beach
  58. Eustatic Change
    Variations in relative sea level resulting from changes in the amount of liquid water entering the oceans, e.g. glacial meltwater pouring into the oceans at the end of an ice age, will cause sea levels to rise
  59. Gabions
    Wire cages filled with rocks and built up to protect cliffs or vulnerable structures rom erosion or collapse
  60. Hard engineering
    Commonly, built structures such as concrete sea walls designed to resist natural processes
  61. Headlands and Bays
    Often alternating features seen in plan-view at the coast, usually representing hard (headlands) and soft (bays) rock outcrops
  62. Isostatic change
    Variations in relative sea level associated with changes in the bouyancy of the land, e.g. at the end of an ice age, as the weight of the ice is removed, the land will start to rise causing relative sea levels to fall
  63. Longshore Drift
    Lateral transfer of sediment along a stretch of coastline in a series of zig zags representing repeated cycles of swash and backwash
  64. Marine erosion
    Erosion carried out by the sea, including hydraulic action (sheer power of the waves), corrasion (rock fragments being flung at a cliff face), abrasion (sandpaper effect as rock fragments/pebbles are scraped over bedrock) and solution (dissolving of soluble rocks)
  65. Marine transportation
    Transportation of sediment by the sea involving traction (rolling on seabed), saltation (bouncing), suspension and solution
  66. Marsh creation
    Artificial creation of salt marshes associated with managed retreat, where the sea is allowed to flood a low-lying coastal area previously protected
  67. Revetments
    Semi-permeable often wooden structures positioned on a beach to break up the waves as they approach the shore
  68. Rip-Rap
    Piles of large resistant boulders (also known as rock armour), placed at the foot of a cliff or alongside vulnerable structures to break up and absorb wave energy
  69. Salt marshes
    Coastal ecosystem formed on mudflats (e.g. in a river estuary) largely comprising salt-tolerant plants
  70. Sand dunes
    Deposits of sand transported and shaped by the wind inland from the high tide line
  71. Sea Walls
    Solid barriers to sea usually constructed of concrete and positioned on the coast to protect vulnerable land or human developments, such as housing
  72. Sediment cells
    Largely self contained (closed) sediment systems involving the movement of sediment in a cyclic manner
  73. Soft engineering
    Management approaches that have minimal impact on the environment and aim to work with natural processes
  74. Spits
    Narrow FINGER of deposited material (sand and/or pebbles) protruding out to sea from the land. Where a spit joins an island to the mainland, the feature is called a tombolo
  75. Sub-aerial weathering
    Group of weathering processes operating at the coast but not directly related to marine action e.g. frost shattering in cliffs, action of tree roots
  76. Submergent Coast
    Coastline exhibiting features associated with rising sea levels, e.g. flooded river estuary (ria)
  77. Swash-aligned beach
    Beach deposits (sand and pebbles) accumulated in a bay largely by the action of swash
  78. Wave cut platform
    Bare and gently sloping rocky surface at the foot of a cliff, sometimes covered by pebbles
  79. Bio-fuel
    Crops grown for fuel
  80. Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
    Power stations that produce electricity and which also use their surplus heat, either by recycling it or by piping it off to local homes so that it is not wasted
  81. Energy dependency
    The level of energy imports as a proportion of total energy consumption. The higher the proportion of energy imports, the more energy dependent the country is on others
  82. Energy efficiency
    The balance between the amount of energy used and that lost e.g. up chimneys of power stations
  83. Energy Gap
    The difference between energy supply and energy demand
  84. Energy Mix
    Primary energy sources (e.g. coal, wood, oil, gas) used to meet demand
  85. Energy pathway
    Refers to the flow of energy between producer and consumer
  86. Energy poverty
    Having less energy than is required to meet demand
  87. Energy Security
    Means having access to reliable and affordable sources of energy
  88. Energy deficit
    Means having insufficient energy to meet demand
  89. Energy surplus
    Having more energy available than is required to meet demand
  90. Flow resource
    Infinite, continuous energy sources which can be constantly renewed
  91. Fossil Fuel
    Fuel produced over millions of years from the breakdown of organic material, e.g. wood into coal
  92. Geopolitics
    The study of the ways in which political decisions and processes affect the way space and resources are used. It is the relationship between geography, economics and politics
  93. Hydro-electricity
    Energy generated by moving flows of water
  94. Low Carbon economy
    An economy which seeks to use low amounts of carbon based energy
  95. Low carbon homes
    Homes which are deliberately intended to use minimal energy
  96. Peak Oil
    The theoretical year in which oil is or was produced at its maximum and which can never be repeated as stocks decline
  97. Primary Energy source
    Resources which can be burned to generate energy direct e.g. coal, oil and natural gas
  98. Privatisation
    The sale of government assets to private shareholders, so that a company is run for profit rather than as a government service
  99. Recyclable resource
    Reprocessed resources, e.g. plutonium and heat capture systems
  100. Renewable energy sources
    Those whose flow is continuous, e.g. solar or wind power
  101. Secondary energy source
    Energy sources generated using another fuel, e.g. electricity
  102. Solar Power
    Energy generated from the sun
  103. Stock resource
    Finite energy sources whose use means they will eventually run out
  104. Tar Sands
    Also known as oil sands, these are naturally formed mixtures of sand or clay and a dense viscous form of petroleum called bitumen
  105. Trans-boundary pollution
    Pollution which crosses national boundaries, e.g. acid rain caused by burning fossil fuels which emit sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
  106. Transit state
    A country or state through which energy flows on its way from producer to consumer
  107. Wave power
    Energy generated from waves
  108. Erosion
    The break up of rocks by the action of rock particles being moved over the Earths surface by water, wind and ice.
  109. Transportation
    The movement of particles from the place they were eroded to the place where they are deposited
  110. Hazard
    A natural event that threatens life and property. A disaster is the realisation of the hazard. Flooding is an example of a natural hazard.
  111. River Management
    River basins are subject to strategies designed to prevent flooding and to ensure that there is an adequate supply of water.
  112. Backshore
    Is the area between the high water mark and the landward limit of marine activity. Changes normally take place here only during storm activity
  113. Foreshore
    Is the area lying between the high water mark and the low water mark. It is the most important zone for marine processes in times that are not influenced by storm activity.
  114. Inshore
    Is the area between the low water mark and the point where waves cease to have any influence on the land beneath them
  115. Offshore
    Is the area beyond the point where waves cease to impact the sea bed and in which activity is limited to deposition of sediments
  116. Marine processes
    Processes operating upon a coastline that are connected with the sea, such as waves, tides and longshore drift
  117. Birth rate
    A measure of an areas fertility. It is expressed as the number of live births per 1000 per year
  118. Death rate
    The number of deaths per 1000 per year
  119. Life expectancy
    The average numbers of years from birth that a person can expect to live
  120. Longevity
    The increase in life expectancy over a period of time. It is a direct resulr of improved medical provision and increased levels of economic development. People live longer and this creates an older population
  121. Natural Change
    The change in size of a population caused by the interrelationship between birth and death rates. If birth rate exceeds death rate, a population will increase. If death rate exceeds birth rate, a population will decline
  122. Fertility
    The number of live births per 1,000 women aged 15-49 in one year. It is also defined as the average number of children each women in a population will bear. If this number is 2.1 or higher, a population will replace itself.
  123. Infant mortality rate
    The number of deaths of children under the age of one year per 1000 live births per year
  124. Forced migration
    The migrant has to migrate because of circumstances
  125. International migration
    The UN defines international migration as the movement of people across national frontiers, for a minimum of one year
  126. Migration
    A permanent or semi-permanent change of residence of an individual or group of people
  127. Net Migration
    The difference between the numbers of in-migrants and out-migrants in an area. When in-migrants exceed out-migrants, there is net migrational gain. When out-migrants exceed in-migrants, there is net migrational loss.
  128. Rural-urban and urban-rural migration
    In less developed countries, the new migrational gain of urban areas at the expense of rural areas results in urbanisation. In more developed countries, movements from urban areas to rural areas have led to counter-urbanisation.
  129. Voluntary migration
    The migrant makes the decision to migrate
  130. Population Structure
    The proportion of males and females in an area, usually in the form of age distribution.
  131. Population density
    The number of people in an area. The density of population is obtained by dividing the total population of a country by the total area of the country.
  132. Flow
    A term used to describe renewable resources
  133. Reserve
    That part of a resource that is available for use
  134. Resource
    Any part of the environment that can be used to meet human needs. Resources can be classed as renewable (infinite) or non-renewable (finite)
  135. Stock
    A term used to describe non-renewable resources
  136. Sustainable Development
    Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.
  137. Electricity
    A form of energy created from primary fuel sources. The National Grid supplies electricity throughout the UK. This is a network of high voltage electric power lines between major power stations and cities, which can supply power on demand.
  138. Globalisation
    The close economic interdependence between the leading nations of the world in trade, investment and cooperative and commercial relationships
  139. OPEC
    The Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries was set up in the 1960s to coordinate trade and production policies relating to oil. There are 13 member countries, of which 8 are located in the Middle East and North Africa.
  140. Transnational corporations
    Large companies that operate in more than one country.
  141. Carbon Trading
    Rich, economically developed countries can buy carbon credits from poorer countries, for example by helping them to modernise old, inefficient power stations.
  142. Greenhouse Effect
    The way that the atmosphere absorbs long wave radiation from the Eart and is warmed. The effect is increasing because of the release of gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by human activity.
  143. Kyoto Protocol
    An agreement signed in 1997 by most of the more developed countries (a major exception being the USA). The aim of this treaty is to cut harmful emissions by 5% by 2012.
  144. Abstraction
    Removal of water from rivers, lakes or groundwater for human use
  145. Base Flow
    The part of a rivers discharge fed by groundwater
  146. Channel
    The part of a valley floor occupied by the flowing water of a stream or river
  147. Channel Network
    The system of tributary streasms that join increasingly larger river channels in a drainage basin
  148. Dam
    A barrier built acorss a valley to interrupt river flow and create a man made lake to store water
  149. Hydrograph
    A graph on which variations in a rivers discharge are plotted against time
  150. Hydrological Cycle
    The unending movement of water between land, sea and atmosphere
  151. Impermeable
    Rocks that do not allow water to pass through them
  152. Interlocking Spurs
    A series of ridges projecting out on alternative sides of a valley and around which a river winds its course
  153. Landform
    A physical feature with recognisable characteristics, e.g. waterfall, meander, formed by specific processes such as erosion or deposition
  154. Mass Movement
    The movement of weathered rock down slope without the direct action of running water
  155. Oxbow Lake
    A crescent shaped lake which form when a meander bend is cut off from the main river channel
  156. River Regime
    The variation (seasonal pattern) in river discharge over the course of a year
  157. Shortage
    Areas where water supply is lower than water demand from humans
  158. Surplus
    Areas where water supply is higher than water demand from humans
  159. Store
    Places within a system where materials or energy are held for a time
  160. Streamflow
    The flow of surface water in a well defined channel
  161. Transfer
    Flows of water between stores in the hydrological cycle
  162. Valley
    A linear depression in the landscape formed by erosion, usually with a river channel at its lowest point
  163. Water Quality
    A measure of how fit for human consumption water is. Polluted water has low water quality
  164. Watershed
    The dividing line between one drainage basin and another
  165. Weathering
    The chemical alteration and physical breakdown of rock in situ
  166. Bar
    A linear depositional beach - like landform, formed when a spit joins two headlands
  167. Biodiversity
    The variety of species in an ecosystem
  168. Cave
    A void in a cliff where rock material has been removed by erosion
  169. Coral Reef
    A marine ecosystem formed by reef building corals
  170. Ecosystem
    An organic community of plants and animals interacting with their environment
  171. Mangroves
    Tropical and sub-tropical coastal forests; mangrove trees can grow in salty, tidal water
  172. Sea level change
    The rise or fall in the average level of the sea over long periods of time. This acts as a base level for natural erosion
  173. Stack
    An isolated pillar of rock left when the top of an arch has collapsed
  174. Stump
    Over time, further erosion reduces the stack to a smaller, lower stump.
  175. Wave Action
    Erosion, transport and deposition caused by waves on the coast
  176. Accessibility
    The ease with which people can get to a particular place
  177. Development
    The way a country progresses and improve over time, usually measured by rising incomes and better quality of life.
  178. Finite
    Energy resources which have a fixed stock, and will eventually run out, such as coal, oil and gas
  179. Non-renewable resource
    A material that cannot be restored after use. Examples, include fossil fuels and minerals
  180. Raw Material
    Anything that occurs in natural state and this is useful to people
  181. Transport
    Moving people, raw materials or goods from one location to another
  182. Urbanisation
    The process of becoming more urban, mainly through more and more people living in towns and cities
  183. Deforestation
    The felling and clearance of forested land by humans
  184. Global Warming
    A slow but significant rise in the Earths temperature. It may be caused by the build up of excessive amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which increase the greenhouse effect
  185. Population Pressure
    When there are too many people for the resources (water, farmland) of an area to support
  186. Soil erosion
    The removal of soil by wind and water and by the movement of soil down slope
  187. Asylum Seeker
    A forced migrant who has asked for permission to permanently remain in the country they have migrated to
  188. Pull factor
    Something that attracts a migrant to a new location (e.g. freedom, better job etc)
  189. Push factor
    Something in the home area that forces or persuades a migrant to move away (e.g. poverty, persecution etc)
  190. Refugee
    A person who flees their country to avoid war, the threat of death, oppression or persecution
  191. Development gap
    The difference in standards of living and well being between the worlds richest and poorest countries (between HICs and LICs)
  192. Gross domestic product (GDP)
    The total value of goods and services produced by a country during a year. When expressed as per head of population (per capita), it provides a widely used measure of national prosperity and development
  193. Gross National Income (GNI)
    GNI is very similar to GDP, but GNI takes into account that some countries are in debt and pay money in debt interest. This reduces GNI relative to GDP
  194. Human Development Index (HDI)
    Used as a measure of development in a country and for making international comparisons
  195. Human Welfare
    The general condition of a population in terms of diet, housing healthcare, education etc
  196. Intermediate Technology
    The simple, easily learned and maintained technology used in a range of economic activities serving local needs in LICs
  197. Literacy
    The ability to read and write. In HICs literacy rates are often around 99% of the adult population, but in LICs they are much lower
  198. Poverty
    When people lack the income needed to have a reasonable quality of life
  199. Abrasion
    Degradation of the land through the scouring action of materials being carried by an agent of erosion. Rates vary according to amount of material carried, energy of the agent and hardness of materials involved
  200. Abiotic
    Not from living things. Used to describe non-living components of an environment such as rock or water
  201. Accretion
    Growth of a natural feature by enlargement due to the addition of more of the same material
  202. AIDS
    A fatal syndrome caused by HIV. Main characteristic is a greatly reduced ability of the body to fight infection. Victims usually die from other illnesses they can no longer fight, rather than aids itself, which can lead to underreporting.
  203. Active Layer
    The upper few metres of soil in a periglacial area which undergoes thawing in summer and is prone to mass movement relative to the permafrost layer below.
  204. Aeolian
    OF THE WIND. Refers to transportation, erosion and deposition by wind action
  205. Afforestation
    Planting of trees on previously un-wooded land
  206. Agent of erosion
    The direct source of movement that can cause erosion through the transfer of energy or transport of rock material; water (rivers and waves), wind and ice.
  207. Aggradation
    Deposition of load within river channels
  208. Allogenic
    When an external environmental factor causes a process to occur
  209. Alluvial cone
    An alluvial fan with highly steep slopes usually found where mountain streams exit narrow valleys
  210. Alluvial Fan
    A fan-shaped deposit of river load where energy has been lost due to the river exiting abruptly from a narrow upland valley to a lowland plain
  211. Alluviation
    The process of depositing alluvium
  212. Alluvium
    River deposits found either on the floddplain or historic point bars
  213. Antecedent Drainage
    The maintenance of course by an old river over more recent uplifting of the land surface
  214. Aquifer
    A permeable rock which stores and transfers water. Useful when underlain by impermeable rock to trap the water and allow it to be trapped
  215. Artesian
    The upward movement of groundwater by hydrstatic pressure
  216. Artificial flooding
    Deliberate release of water from dam reservoirs to create downstream flooding that is beneficial to farmland or wetland areas
  217. Atmosphere
    Layer of gases surrounding earth and held there by gravity. Nitrogen forms 78.09% and oxygen 20.95%. The remaining 0.96% is made up of 19 gases
  218. Attrition
    A process of erosion where the collisions between parts of the load lead to comminution
  219. Avalanche
    Rapid, down slope mass movement of ice and/or snow due to a trigger overcoming reduced friction in an unstable accumulation
  220. Backwash
    The movement of water down a beach to the sea after having run up the beach in the swash
  221. Backwater
    Area of still water creaed by an impediment to drainage e.g. a sediment bar across an ox-bow lake
  222. Bankfull discharge
    The maximum discharge that a particular river channel is capable of carrying without flooding
  223. Barrage
    A dam or barrier with adjustable gates and sluices built across an estuary in order to harness tidal energy
  224. Base Level
    The lowest elevation to which erosion can take place. Usually sea-level but could be lower if a river drains into an inland sea or lake whose level is below sea-level
  225. Bay
    A curved ident to the coastline, usually created by greater erosion rates than neighbouring parts of the coast. Bays often contain beaches and provide an area of shelter both for boats and for settlements.
  226. Beach
    Accumulation of sand and shingle material at a coast or at the fringes of a body of water due either to low energy brought about sheltered conditions or due to an excess of sediment
  227. Beach Depletion
    Net loss of sand and/or shingle from a beach due to reduced replenishment while removal processes such as longshore drift continue unabated. Natural replenishment rates are thought to have slowed as sea levels have risen, river loads have reduced, beaches have stabilised and humans have dredged offshore sediments
  228. Bedload
    Larger load which is unable to move in suspension but is transported by saltation and traction
  229. Bedrock
    Solid rock underlying other surface materials
  230. Berm
    A low ridge towards the rear of a beach marking the uppermost level that waves reached during the previous high tide
  231. Best-fit line
    A line drawn on a scatter graph, as close to all the points as possible, which this indicates any trend in the pattern. Points that are very disparate may not provide an opportunity to draw a best-fit line and thus show no trend or correlation. If the points all lie on the line, the correlation is perfect.
  232. Bias
    Distortion in sampling which means that the sampled data does not represent the population which it is meant to represent
  233. Bifurcation ratio
    In a drainage basin, the relationship between the streams of one order of magnitude and those of the next highest order, obtained by dividing the number of lower order streams with the number of the higher order. The lower the number, the greater the risk of flooding
  234. Blowout depression
    A small, shallow bowl-shaped feature created by wind erosion in coastal and arid areas
  235. Bluff
    Slope created by lateral river erosion causing the retreat of interlocking spurs
  236. Ester Boserup
    A Danish economist who suggested that the ideas of Malthus regarding the relationship between population and resources, particularly food, did not hold because technological development allowed resource production to support larger populations than previously thought possible, or NECESSITY IS THE MOTHER OF INVENTION. More studies show the reverse may be true
  237. Bottomset Beds
    Layers of sediment in a delta found furthest from the river mouth and formed from flocculated clay particles.
  238. Brackish
    A slightly saline environment where sea water inputs are moderated by an inflow of freshwater
  239. Breaker
    An overextended wave which then collapses sending water forward. Occurs when sea waves enter shallow water and are slowed at their base by friction
  240. Breakpoint bar
    A sand bar parallel to the coast which is located approximately at the point where waves begin to break
  241. Brook
    A small stream
  242. Calcium Carbonate
    A compound with the formula CaCO3
  243. Caliche
    An alkaline salt deposit (crust) created by salinisation
  244. Canopy
    When the trees in a woodland or forest area are close enough together than the upper leaf layer of the trees form a more or less consistent cover
  245. Capillary action
    The upward movement of water through a channels in a substance. In geography, most commonly the upward movement of water through a soil. Caused by adhesion of the water to the channel surface and cohesion of water molecules to one another.
  246. Capillary water
    The water that moves around the soil and is available for plant use.
  247. Capitalism
    A social and economic system relying on market mechanisms to allocate factors of production which are privately rather than state owned.
  248. Carbonation
    A form of chemica weathering where natural rainwater, a weak carbonic, reacts with calcium carbonate in rock to produce calcium bicarbonate
  249. Carbon Dioxide
    An atmospheric gas which has in modern times made up approx 0.03% of the atmosphere. Its vital for photosynthesis and for its contribution to the Greenhouse Effect which allowed life to exist on earth by absorbing long wave radiation from the Earths surface and holding the energy in what we know as air temperature.
  250. Carbon Monoxide
    A gas produced through inefficient and therefore incomplete combustion of fossil fuels
  251. Cardinal Points
    North, South, East and west
  252. Carrying capacity
    The idea that any given environment can only support a finite population. Originating in ecology for plant communities, social geographers have tried to apply the idea to human populations
  253. Cartography
    Map and chart making
  254. Catchment Area
    The area of land from which precipitation makes its way to a particular river channel
  255. Cavern
    A large cave
  256. Cavitation
    Creation of potholes in a stream bed due to the blasting effect of particles thrown against it by the formation and collapse or air bubbles. The bubbles form in streams flowing at high speed or under high pressure.
  257. Channel Efficiency
    The ability of the channel to conserve energy thay may otherwise be lost to friction. Measured by hydraulic radius
  258. Channel flow
    Run off of surface water in a defined channel as in a river or stream
  259. Channelisation
    Straightening and/or deepeninh of river channels to improve/maintain navigability and for flood control
  260. Channel Morphology
    Shape and dimensions of the cross-section of a channel
  261. Choropleth Map
    A map using different densities of shading to indicate the distribution of different classes of data by administrative unit across an area
  262. Clapotis
    Phenomenon where patterning of incoming sea waves exactly matches waves reflected by a sea wall or a sea cliff resulting in a static pattern of crests and troughs just offshore
  263. Clark-Fisher model
    Theoretical change in the relative importance of primary, secondary, tertiary and quatenary employment sectors over time as an economy develops from pre-industrial, through industrial to post industrial stages
  264. Cleavage
    The line of weakness in a rock along which it will break when put under stress
  265. Climate
    Aggregate weather conditions of an area over a long period of time which allow for the designation of seasonal patterns and expected future weather
  266. Climate Change
    Long term variations in climate, particularly related to average annual temperatures and annual rainfall
  267. Clouds
    Visible masses of water droplets and/or ice crystals formed by condensation in the atmosphere
  268. Coast
    A zone of interaction of the land and the sea at the margings where the two meet
  269. Colonizer plants
    The first plants to establish themselves in a virgin environment as the pioneer community
  270. Comminution
    The reduction in size of particles through attrition
  271. Competence
    In rivers, the maximum particle diameter that can be carried at a given velocity
  272. Condensation
    The formation of water droplets or ice crystals from water vapour when it is cooled to the dew point.
  273. Confluence
    Where two river channels join
  274. Consequent stream
    A stream created as a consequence of uplift
  275. Conservation
    The maintenance of a landscape (natural or man made) in its current state
  276. Contour line
    On topographical maps, the isolines connecting points of equal height above sea level
  277. Correlation
    The degree of association between two sets of data either positive -as one increases so does the other - or negative, as one increase, the other decreases.
  278. Cross Profile
    Cut away view through a feature from side to side
  279. Cusps
    Small hollows on beach fronts, a few metres across, which look like mini bays within the beach itself
  280. Cuspate Foreland
    Triangular beach form, Can be a few hundred square metres to few hundred square kilometres
  281. Cycle of poverty
    The process which maintains conditions of chronic poverty in rural areas of ELDCs. A lack of money restricts, or more often precludes, investment in agricultural technology keeping yields low and thus little or not surplus for sale which maintains the lack of money.
  282. Dalmation Coast
    Numerous elongated islands lying just offshore and parallel to the mainland
  283. Debris
    Any fragmented rock material, e.g. that produced by weathering or erosion
  284. Deflation
    Wind removal of small, grain size rock particles such as sand
  285. Degradation
    When high discharge creates a high energy environment in a river channel leading to a lowering of the channel bed
  286. Demographic transition Model
    A theory of population change over time. Seeks to explain population increases and decreases through variations in the birth rate and death rate. Based on observations of historical changes in parts of the EMDW, it is now applied more generally though with variable levels of confidence. A major criticism is its failure to take into account changes due to migration
  287. Demographics
    The statistical characteristics of a population; births, deaths, age/sex structure etc
  288. Denudation
    Stripping of surface cover. Can apply to both vegetation and soils
  289. Dependency ratio
    • The proportion of working (economically active) people to non-working (non-economically active) people in a country by the formula;
    • People aged 0-14 + people aged over 65
    • People aged 15-65. X100
    • This suggests how many non workers are supported by every hundred workers. While these age groups do not reflect economic status accurately, inaccuracies tend to balance out.
  290. Dependent Variable
    One which is directly affected by another, e.g. water temperature will vary with depth but depth is not affected by water temperature
  291. Deprivation
    A situation where quality of life is below that of what can be expected for a particular place at a particular time
  292. Desertification
    The spread of desert, or desert conditions, from an established desert area into the surrounding area.
  293. Dew
    Condensation of water directly onto ground surfaces such as leaves or car windscreens. Rapid heat loss at night causes air closest to the surface to reach its dew point
  294. Discordant Coast
    A coast of headlands and bays where the different rock types are perpendicular to the coastline
  295. Discrete variable
    A variable which can only be measured in whole, individual units if it is to have any real meaning, eg. Numbers of people
  296. Dispersal
    The movement of people or organisms from their area of birth
  297. Disposable income
    Income left after taxes and necessities have been paid. This can be spent on goods or services wanted, or saved
  298. Dissolved load
    Those minerals that have been taken into solution and are carried along by a river
  299. Distance Decay
    The negative correlation of distance to interaction between two points e.g. the greater the distance, the lower the amount of interaction
  300. Distributary
    A stream which splits away from the main channel and never rejoins it. Common across deltas as they are so close to the sea that the channel has no space to find its way back. When a channel does rejoin the main stream, it is braided.
  301. Diversification
    A strategy for spreading business risk whereby a business branches into new industries or markets to protect against potential, unpredictable problems in their core business
  302. Dredging
    Removal of sediment from the bottom of a sea or river. Carried out to improve navigation or to obtain material for construction uses and beach nourishment
  303. Dune
    A ridge or mound of sand formed by wind conditions in arid and coastal areas.
  304. Ebb Tide
    A falling tide
  305. Ecology
    Study of the ecosystem with particular reference for the relationships between plants and animals and the environment
  306. Economic growth
    The growth of Gross National Product over time
  307. Ecosystem
    A system existing in a particular region, at a variety of scales, where organisms exist in communities and interact with the abiotic environment around them
  308. Effective Precipitation
    Precipitation available for actual use by plants
  309. Elevation
    Height above sea level
  310. Emergent Coast
    A coast that has experienced net sea level fall and the characteristics particular to it as a result
  311. Emigration
    Movement of people away from an area, region or country
  312. Energy conservation
    Attempts to limit energy use so that the growth in overall global energy use is slowed. Idealists wish to see absolute reduction in energy use but perhaps a lower per capita usage is a more appropriate goal
  313. Entrainment
    The taking up of river sediment into transport
  314. Ephemeral
    In rivers, flowing seasonally or occasionally in response to increased water availability e.g. due to a rainfall event or snowmelt
  315. Estuary
    Area of lower river valley or mouth influenced by tidal change
  316. Family Planning
    The move to having pregnancy by choice rather than chance achieved through the education and empowerment of women, altered attitudes in society and the availability and affordability of contraceptives
  317. Farm Diversification Scheme
    In UK, grants available to farmers to develop supplementary income from alternative. Non-farming activities on their land.
  318. Fault
    A break in the continuity of rock strata. May be due to tension, compression and/or horizontal tearing
  319. Fauna
    Animal life
  320. Fertiliser
    A substance containing plant nutrients which is added to agricultural land to maintain or increase its fertility
  321. Fetch
    Distance wind has travelled over open water to create waves
  322. Fjord
    A narrow, steep sided coastal inlet which can extend up to a couple of hundred kilometres inland. During a glacial period sea levels are lower and so glaciers that reach the sea erode valleys down to this sea level. After the glacial has ended, the sea level will rise and flood this glacial valley to form a fjord.
  323. Flocculation
    The clustering of clay particles when river load meets sea water. The resultant larger particles sink more easily.
  324. Flash Flood
    When flooding is very sudden and high volume compared to the channel involved
  325. Flora
    Plant life
  326. Flume
    A small, U shaped channel built into a river to aid the measurement of discharge
  327. Foreset Beds
    In a delta, the deposits of silts and clays found to the seaward side of the feature beyond the top set beds but above and before the bottomset beds. Usually lie at an angle as a result
  328. Freeze-thaw weathering
    A process of physical or mechanical weathering. In areas which experience a diurnal temperature range above and below ), then water is frozen and thawed on a daily basis. As it expands when freezing, it can widen cracks in which it is held which then capture more water during the thaw period. This is repeated until the stresses within the rock cause it to fracture
  329. Gelifluction
    A form of mass movement in which thawed upper soil layers move over permafrost
  330. Geographic Information System
    The creation of a database of geographic information from a variety of sources which allow the cross-referencing and compilation of different data sets so that relationships may be observed or postulated
  331. Geologic Time
    The total time involved since formation of the earth to the present time
  332. Geomorphology
    The science of understanding landform formation
  333. Geostrophic Wind
    Wind blowing parallel to isobars because of deflection of the pressure gradient by the Coriolis Force
  334. Geothermal
    Heat from within the eart. By pumping water down to hot rock layers where magma is close to the surface, we can use the resultant stream to drive turbines and produce electricity. On a smaller scale the water can be used directly to heat swimming pools and spas and the like
  335. Gorge
    Deep, narrow, steep (often vertical) - sided valley which usually has a river occupying its entire floor
  336. Gradient
    The steepness of a slope
  337. Gravel
    A loose mixture of pebbles and rock fragments that are coarser than sand
  338. Gravitational Water
    The water in the soil that is unavailable to plants and which flows out of the soil as throughflow to the river channel or percolates into the rock below
  339. Greenhouse gas
    A gas, such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs and HCFCs, that absorbs and re-emits infrared radiation, warming the earts surface and contributing to climate change
  340. Ground Frost
    Frost within the upper layers of the soil
  341. Groundwater
    The store of water that has moved by percolation into the lower layers of the soil or the bedrock
  342. Groundwater discharge
    The re-emergence of groundwater to the surface at springs or resurgences, or by seepage
  343. Groundwater recharge
    The addition of water to the groundwater store
  344. G8
    Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK and USA. The worlds richest countries who representatives regularly meet at all levels to determine economic, social and political policy to do with the world
  345. Groyne
    A wooden wall built across a beach from land to sea. Interrupts the natural process of longshore drift by denying natural beach material to downdrift sections of coast
  346. Habitat
    Particular environment in which any one species of plant or animal is able to live
  347. Hail
    Balls of ice a few millimeters in diameter which falls as precipitation
  348. Halophyte
    A plant that is able to tolerate environments with a high level of salt. Found usually in coastal areas or arid areas where potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation for large parts of the year.
  349. Halosere
    Plant succession in a saline environment e.g. estuary, salt marsh
  350. Headward Erosion
    The lengthening of a young valley or gully by water erosion at the head of its valley
  351. Headwaters
    The uppermost portion of a river course close to the source
  352. Heat Island
    The warm air found around and above an urban area, distinct from the air temperature above the surrounding rural land
  353. Heathland
    An environment of grass and shrubs which develops in nutrient deficient parts of temperate areas.
  354. Helicoidal Flow
    The spiraling flow of water in meandering channels caused by the deflection of flow as water hits the bending banks
  355. Hierarchy
    Organisation by class of importance, status or authority. Usually a negative correlation between class and number of members e.g. the higher the class, the lower the number of members of that class
  356. High Tide
    The highest point to which the sea rises against the land in its daily vertical movement
  357. Housing Association
    In the UK, non-profitt organisations offering a third way outside of the traditional housing provision of the private sector and local government. Originally set up to provide rental accommodation they now also offer a way for people to become owners. They still focus on helping lower income groups find appropriate accommodation
  358. HIV
    A virus which forms DNA while replicating its RNA leading to the development of AIDS
  359. Humidity
    The water vapour content of the atmosphere
  360. Humus
    The decomposed organic element of the soil. Is identified as an independent horizon in some soils. Usually dark in colour and comes in 2 forms, highly acidic or milder
  361. Hybrid
    A plant with certain characteristics achieved by cross building different plants for their particular qualities
  362. Hydration
    A process of chemical weathering. Some minerals take up water and form weaker compounds. Also puts stress on the rock
  363. Hydrolysis
    Process of chemical weathering whereby a chemical reaction takes place between ions in a mineral and either H+ or OH- in the water
  364. Hydrophyte
    Any plant which has adapted to moist environments
  365. Hydrosere
    A freshwater environment in which primary plant succession takes place
  366. Hygroscopic
    A substance that attracts water
  367. Hypersaline
    With high salt content. Hypersaline lakes such as the Dead Sea have a much higher salt content than normal sea water
  368. Hypothesis
    The proposition of a relationship between variables which can then be tested and either rejected or accepted
  369. Illuviation
    Inward movement of clays, minerals and organic matter to a low soil horizon. From one above
  370. Immature Soil
    One which has not had time to develop. It will be made mostly of regolith. Organic components are minimal
  371. Immigration
    Inward movement of people to a country
  372. Incised stream
    One which has cut deeply down into the landscape
  373. Independent variable
    One which is not affected by another
  374. Industrial Estate
    Planned area of integrated buildings and roads for industrial use, especially by modern industrial businesses. Often built on brownfield sites as part of urban regeneration projects.
  375. Industrialisation
    The move from an economy dominated by agriculturla output and employment to one dominated by manufacturing
  376. Infiltration Rate
    • The rate at which water moves into the soil. Dependent on
    • Amount of water already in the soil, especially near the surface
    • Soil texture which determines the size of pore spaces and thus how easily water can pass through
    • Soil structure
    • Amount and type of vegetation
  377. Infrastructure
    The collective name for all the communication links and basic utility links that get built across a country to facilitate movements.
  378. Inorganic
    Non-living things
  379. Input
    In system theories, any element introduced to the system from outside
  380. Insolation
    Incoming solar radiation measured from when the atmosphere is engaged
  381. Inter-basin transfer
    The transfer of water between drainage basins by humans
  382. Interdependence
    The connections between different components of systems or between separate systems which mean that changes in one will necessarily cause changes in another
  383. Intermittent
    In rivers, flowing most of the time but seasonally or occasionally ceasing to flow in response to decreased water availability
  384. Interquartile Range
    Statistical measure of the spread of values around the median. When the upper, or higher, 25% of values and the lower 25% of values are removed, the spread of the remaining, interquartile, values is derived
  385. Inter-tidal Zone
    The land between the low tide mark and high tide mark
  386. Irrigation
    Where humans water the land, usually for agriculture but also for leisure (e.g. gold courses) either during a period of dry weather or to bring areas of land in drier zones into use
  387. Isobar
    A line on a weather map that connects points of equal pressure. On a weather map, isobars extend around areas of high and low pressure.
  388. Isostatic Depression
    The sinking of a landmass due to the overlying weight of ice
  389. Isostatic rebound
    The rising of a landmass after the removal of ice
  390. Joints
    Natural crack in a rock running vertically between bedding planes
  391. Juvenile Water
    Water that originated within the earth and was brought to the surface by intrusive vulcanism
  392. Kaolin
    A clay produced by the chemical weathering of granite
  393. Labour-intensive
    An economic activity where labour is the largest input by value, as opposed to capital
  394. Lagoon
    Calm, protected area of water between a barrier beach or coral reef and a coastline, or in the centre of an atoll
  395. Lag time
    Time that passes between the point when precipitation is at its highest over a particular drainage basic during a particular precipitation event, and the point when discharge in the river channel is at its highest in that drainage basin for that precipitation event
  396. Laissez-faire
    The belief that markets should be left to run free from government intervention as business and consumer needs will find their balance in the market place
  397. Lake
    A body of water on a continental mass
  398. Land breeze
    A wind blowing from the land towards the sea. Often found at night under anticyclonic conditions when heat is lost rapidly from the land and the air above is cooled and increases in pressure
  399. Landslide
    A rapid downslope mass movement where water in the soil and rock has accumulated to sufficiently increase stress and lubricate bedding planes. The bedding places will usually be near parallel to the angle of slope
  400. Latent Heat
    Release of heat during a change of state
  401. Leaching
    The removal of minerals in solution from soils when water moves down through the soil and drains away
  402. Lee
    Sheltered side of a slope
  403. Leeward
    The downwind area from a slope
  404. Lessivage
    Downward movement of clay particles through a soil in suspension as water passes through
  405. Limestone
    A sedimentary rock formed from at least 80% calcium carbonate
  406. Lithification
    The cementing of sediments to form rock
  407. Littoral
    Most properly the area at a coast between the highest and lowest tides. Generally used simply to refer to the shore
  408. Load
    Rock material being transported by an agent of erosion
  409. Long Profile
    The side view of a river course from source to mouth which shows how the gradient of the river changes as it flows
  410. Low Tide
    The lowest point to which the sea falls against the land in its daily vertical movement
  411. Thomas Malthus
    Renowned for his theory of population as it relates to resources. Based on the principles that food productiion increases at an arithmetic rate, whereas population increases at an exponential rate, Malthus states that population had to outstrip resources overtime. He suggested that this would trigger both preventative checks, such as postponement of marriage or reduction of family size and positive checks such as famine or war, to reduce population. Unforeseen changes in technology and agricultural organisation discredited his theory as massive food production increases
  412. Mangrove Swamp
    A type of wetland forest made up of salt adapted trees found in the inter-tidal zone of tropical coast areas. Provide a rich habitat for strong biodiversity and help protect coasts from erosion
  413. Maquis
    Scrub vegetation made up of plants such as heathers which can grow up to 3 metres in height. It is found on areas of impermeable rock in Mediterranean regions where the original forests have been cleared by humans
  414. Marina
    A man made dock or mooring area, protected from the sea, particularly for the mooring of pleasure craft
  415. Marram Grass
    A species of grass that is tolerant of dry, sand dune environments. Important as a stabilising factor in the development of a psammosere
  416. Mean Annual Flood
    Over a series of years, the mean average of the maximum flood discharge experienced in a particular river. Recurrence interval should be once every 2.33 years
  417. Mechanisation
    The replacement of human and/or animal labour with machines
  418. Mesa
    A flat topped hill standing up from a plain
  419. Methane
    A naturally occurring gas which is associated with decomposition and with oil deposits. It is a greenhouse gas and burning it, or releasing it to the atmosphere will lead to the creation of carbon dioxide and water vapour, both themseleves greenhouse gases
  420. Mining
    Extraction of minerals from the crust for industrial use
  421. Moor
    Open, often hilly, expanse of land characterised by wet, spongy, peaty soils and vegetation such as moss, coarse grass and heather
  422. Mor
    A humus layer with high levels of acidity. Dark, not fully decomposed and lacking nutrients
  423. Mouth
    Where a river meets a body of water
  424. Mudflow
    A fairly rapid mass movement usually occurring after heavy rainfall
  425. Mull
    A dark, crumbly, nutrient rich humus layer
  426. Nationalisation
    Government policy which compels certain industries to transfer their ownership from private ownership to public ownership. May be driven by political economic philosophy, the needs of major crises
  427. Nationalism
    The placing, by the individual, of national interests over and above those of the individual, regional or global. Can exist under all political, social and economic conditions and across societal structures such as class
  428. Natural decrease
    In population, when the death rate is higher than the birth rate
  429. Natural increase
    In population studies, when the birth rate is higher than the death rate
  430. Natural resources
    The things we use that are provided in the natural environment e.g. water, minerals, fuels, soil and so on
  431. Neap Tide
    A low tidal caused when the angle of a line drawn from the sun to the earth and then to the moon is 90. In this twice monthly situation, the gravitational pulls of sun and moon are in opposite thus the high tide is not so high and the corresponding low tide is not so low
  432. Negative Correlation
    Where the rise of one variable corresponds to the fall of another. It is important to note that correlation is not an indicator of causality
  433. Negative Feedback
    When the action of a system leads to a reduction in that action. For example, wave erosion of a cliff may undercut it and cause it to collapse. The fallen debris now protects the cliff so less erosion takes place
  434. Neo-Malthusianism
    A contentious school which holds that Malthus theory of population dynamics is coorect and that modern contraceptive technology and widespread acceptance of abortion are examples of preventative checks to population growth
  435. Nimby
    Not in my back yard
  436. Nitrate
    A nutrient essential to plant growth
  437. Nitrogen cycle
    Series of flows in an ecosystem which move nitrogen between various stores and allow it to perform functions essential for life
  438. Nomad
    A person without a permanent home who moves from place to place throughout the year
  439. NGOs
    Any charity or volunteer association which takes on responsibility for a particular cause. Often starting on a small scale and in response to a particular need e.g. natural disaster
  440. Nuclear Energy
    Uranium is processed into uranium dioxide which undergoes nuclear fission. In this reaction, the uranium nucleus splits and releases neutrons. Energy is released and the neutrons split more atoms causing a chain reaction. The energy is used to heat water and drive turbines to produce electricity. Despite being one of the most efficient and clean energy source known, nuclear energy has been beset with controversy because waste fuel is highly dangerous and although rare, can cause catastrophic results, e.g. Chernobyl
  441. Nutrient
    Any chemical or compound which is used by an organism in order to survive and/or grow
  442. Onshore
    A movement from sea to land. Usually applied to wind but could also be used to describe movements of capital
  443. Opencast mining
    Extraction of a mineral deposit after first removing the layers of rock laid over it. Especially used when the mineral layer is horizontal or only gently dipping and the overlying material is shallow and/or fairly unconsolidated
  444. Optimum Population
    The theoretical number of people required in a particular place at a particular time to maximise the return to each individual from all the available resources
  445. Ordinal Data
    Data presented in order of importance or rank rather than actual values
  446. Organic Farming
    A modern farming system which deliberately eshews the use of chemical inputs to the farm. Has a less negative impact on soils, plants and animals than conventional modern farming, the produce is better for human health. Does require more labour and often achieves lower yields therefore produce tends to be more expensive.
  447. Organism
    An individual living thing
  448. Output
    Relates to activity and means the amount of goods and services produced. In regeneration this would include the number of houses improved, the number of training places provided.
  449. Outwash Plain
    A flat and gently sloping area of gravels, sands, silts and clays deposited beyond the snout of a glacier by meltwater issuing from it. Particles tend to be smoothed and rounded and size decreases with distance from the glacier.
  450. Overland flow
    Water running over the surface of the land into a river, channel or body of water. May occur due to; impermeable rock surfaces, saturated soils, rainfall intensity exceeding infiltration rate, snow/ice melt and compacted soils
  451. Over population
    When there are more than enough people to exploit all the resources of an area such that the marginal return to each person is lower than that of the optimal population
  452. Oxidation
    A type of chemical weathering occurring when metal ions in a rock react with oxygen in the air or water
  453. Peak Flow
    The highest discharge found in a river channel in response to a particular rainfall or snowmelt event
  454. Pebble
    A smooth, rounded fragment of rock that is larger than gravel but smaller than a boulder, in the range of 10-100mm in diameter
  455. Pediment
    Concave, rock cut, slope found between a cliff face and a valley floor in arid and semi arid areas
  456. Periphery
    The edge or margins. Outside a core region
  457. Permafrost
    Frozen ground
  458. Permeable
    A rock which can absorb water (porous) or allow water to pass through cracks and joints (pervious)
  459. Phreatic Divide
    An underground watershed. Marks the outer source of groundwater flow to a particular river. May be caused by sloped bedding planes for example.
  460. Physical Weathering
    A process of weathering which results in smaller pieces of the same rock material being produced
  461. Pioneer
    Used to define a species or community of plants that is first to colonise a previously barren area
  462. Plant Succession
    The sequence of plant species that inhabit an area from the pioneers that first arrive, through to the climax community
  463. Plunge Pool
    The pool found at the base of a waterfall created by the additional erosional energy that falling water and load has
  464. Point Bar
    Gently sloping inner bank of a meander. The shorter distance around the inside of the bend requires a lower velocity and therefore deposition. Leads to the encroachment of the inner bend across the channel
  465. Population Distribution
    The variation in population densities over wide areas
  466. Population policy
    Government interventions to try and control high population growth, stimulate low population growth or control the distribution of people within a country
  467. Pore Spaces
    The space between particles in a rock or soil, usually filled with air or water
  468. Positive feedback
    In a system, those changes which serve to increase the effect
  469. Potential Evapotranspiration
    Theoretical amount of moisture that could be lost from the surface to the atmosphere if it were available
  470. Precipitate
    A soild that has formed out of dissolved state
  471. Pressure Release
    The removal of overlying rock which releases pressure on underlying strata causing them to expand and crack
  472. Prevailing Wind
    The direction from which wind most frequently blows in a particular place
  473. Primary Succession
    The colonisation of a previously barren area by a plant community and its development to a climax community
  474. Prisere
    The stages that make up a primary succession
  475. Production Line
    The organisation of a factory so that each stage of the manufacture is physically next to the one before and a good moves along the line being added to as it goes until it is complete
  476. Psammosere
    Succession of plants in a sandy environment such as coastal dunes
  477. Quality of life
    A component of development. At a basic level it involves such measures as access to water, food, health and education etc
  478. Radial Drainage
    A pattern of streams radiating from a central point or area e.g. off a mountain
  479. Radiation
    The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves
  480. Raised Beach
    A relict beach left dry by a relative fall in sea level
  481. Reforestation
    Is the restocking of existing forests and woodlands which have been depleted, with native tree stock
  482. Reclaimed Land
    Artificial land created in coastal areas
  483. Recycling
    The re-use of materials that would otherwise be deemed rubbish
  484. Refraction
    The tendency for waves to become more parallel to the coastline as they approach it. Caused by the slowing of waves at their base as they enter shallower water
  485. Regolith
    Rock material that has been weathered from the original bedrock
  486. Relief
    The shape of the land particularly as it pertains to elevation
  487. Replacement rate
    The fertility rate required to maintain a population at its current size.
  488. Resurgence
    The reappearance of a river at the surface after it has spent some time running underground.
  489. Ria
    The flooded lower valley of a river caused by a relative rise in sea level to form a small inlet
  490. Riffle
    A bar shaped deposit on a channel bed, midstream
  491. River
    An overland flow of water which forms a vital link in the hydrological cycle
  492. River capacity
    The maximum amount of load a river can carry
  493. River Capture
    When the headwaters of one river are able to generate headward erosion and then break into another river channel and divert the flow into the new channel
  494. River Cliff
    Steep slope on the outer bend of a river where erosion allows for undercutting
  495. Rotational Movement
    Slip or slide over a curved path
  496. Saltation
    The transport of load by bouncing along the bed of a river channel
  497. Sand Bar
    A long strip of deposited sand lying offshore, usually only exposed at low tide, if at all
  498. Saturated
    Full of water. No more can be held
  499. Scatter graph
    A graph which plots values by the use of dots. The dependent variable usually goes on the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis.
  500. Scree
    Highly angular rock pieces produced by freeze-thaw weathering and found at the base of a steep or vertical cliff face
  501. Sea breeze
    A wind blowing from the sea to the land
  502. Sediment
    Any material, of any size, which has been eroded/weathered and then transported and deposited by water, wind or ice
  503. Self sufficiency
    The ability to survive without outside help
  504. Sere
    A particular type of plant succession
  505. Share-cropping
    A system of land rent where the farmer pays with a percentage of his yield rather than cash
  506. Shingle
    The mixture of gravel, pebbles and shell fragments that accumulate on some beaches
  507. Shrub
    A plant which has a thick woody stem but not thick or sturdy enough to be described as a trunk. Smaller than trees
  508. Silt
    A particle of rock/mineral with a diameter between 0.01 and 0.1mm
  509. Sinuosity
    The bendiness of a river course e.g. how far removed it is from a truly straight line course
  510. Slip face
    The lee side of a sand dune so called material often slides or rolls down it
  511. Social Provision
    The basic needs that a society should provide or aspire to provide for its members such as housing, healthcare, education and the like
  512. Soil
    The very upper layer of the land surface made up of mixture of regolith, decomposed organic matter, air and water
  513. Soil Creep
    Slow mass movement of soil downslope due to outward expansions brought on by water infiltration which lead to downward movements under gravity as water moves out of the soil
  514. Soil fertility
    The ability of a soil to provide nutrients for plants growth
  515. Solifluction
    A mass movement of soil in periglacial areas when upper layers thaw in summer and are lubricated in comparison to the permafrost below
  516. Solution Load
    The portion of rivers load held in solution
  517. Source
    The start point of a stream or river
  518. Spheroidal Weathering
    The chemical weathering of nlocks so that they take on a more rounded shape
  519. Spring
    The emergence of water from the ground, usually leading to the formation of a channel flow
  520. Spring Line
    A line of springs emerging from a valley side at approximately the same height which reflect the underlying rock conditions
  521. Spring Tide
    Extremely high and low tides which occur twice a month when the sun and the moon align on the same side of the earth and exert a combined gravitational pull on the oceans
  522. Storm Beach
    The highest part of a beach, created by a strong storm, which rests above the usual high water mark
  523. Storm Surge
    The pushing of water against a coastline to abnormally high levels, usually a combination of extreme low pressure and winds pushing water into a narrowing feature such as a bay or estuary
  524. Stoss
    The exposed side of a slope
  525. Strata
    Layers of deposited material
  526. Sublimation
    Transformation between solid and gas, and vice versa, without being in a liquid stage
  527. Submergent Features
    Those formed where a coastline experiences a relative rise in sea level
  528. Subsequent Stream
    A tributary created by headward erosion
  529. Subsidence
    Sinking to a lower level
  530. Succession
    The development of a plant community over time
  531. Succulent
    A plant that has adapted to drought conditions by being able to store water in its stem or leaves
  532. Suspension
    The transport of load in the body of the water in a river e.g. being carried along in the flow
  533. Swash
    The running of water up a beach under the momentum of a breaking wave
  534. Talik
    Unfrozen ground in an area of permefrost
  535. Talus
    The accumulation of weathered material on a slope
  536. Thalweg
    The deepest part of the river channel
  537. Threshold
    The shallow area at the mouth of a fjord
  538. Threshold Velocity
    The velocity required for particles of a certain size to be taken into transport by an agent of erosion (entrainment)
  539. Tidal Flat
    The surface exposed only at low tide
  540. Tidal Range
    The difference in height between low tide and high tide
  541. Tidal Zone
    The area between the low water mark and high water mark
  542. Tide
    The periodic rise and fall of sea level due to the gravitational pull of the sun and moon
  543. Tombolo
    A sand deposit which joins an island with a nearby land mass
  544. Topset Beds
    Layers of sediment at the landward side of a delta
  545. Traction
    The rolling of load along the bed of a river channel
  546. Transect
    A line drawn between points and then used to investigate changes in surface features along that line
  547. Transmigration
    The mass resettlement of people within a country to alleviate overcrowding or localised overpopulation
  548. Transpiration
    The loss of water from plants through the stomata in the leaves
  549. Tributary
    One river joining another. Usually the smaller of the two is labelled the tributary and the larger is the main channel
  550. Turbidity
    The measure of suspended sediment maintained in water by turbulent flow
  551. Underpopulation
    When the population is not sufficient to make full use of all the resources available and so standards of living are not as high as they could be
  552. V Shaped valley
    The V shape of the cross profile of a river valley in its upper course. As the river has little energy, most erosion is confined to periodic spurts when rainstorm events allow an increase in energy and thus traction and abrasion of the channel bed. The channel thus cuts vertically into the surface and the slopes are then weathered back into a V shape
  553. Water Table
    The upper boundary of the saturated portion of a rock or soil
  554. Wave Cut Notch
    The undercut portion of a cliff where the base has been eroded by wave action
  555. Wave Pounding
    The breakdown of rock through the sheer impact of waves. Large storm waves can exert forces of up to 30 tonnes per metre squared
  556. Weather
    The day to day state of the atmosphere
  557. Wetland
    An area of land that is permanently saturated up to or very near to the surface
  558. Wind deposition
    The return of wind-borne particles to the surface
  559. Wind erosion
    The removal of particles from the surface by wind, and the degrading processes caused when these particles are thrown against rock
  560. Wind Power
    The generation of electricity by turbines which are turned by wind
  561. Xerosere
    A plant succession in dry conditions
  562. Xerophytic
    Drought resistant plants. Adaptations are designed to store what little water is made available and to reduce losses due to evapotranspiration
  563. Advance the Line
    By intervention, to move the existing defence seaward
  564. Age Structure
    Is the distribution of people among various ages of a population
  565. Ageing Population
    That occurs when the median age of a country or region rises due to rising life expectancy and/or declining birth rate
  566. Antecedent Rainfall
    The rainfall occurring within a specifically defined time period prior to the first rainfall in the storm of interest
  567. Anti-Natalist
    Putting a negative value of having children, e.g. One child policy in China
  568. Arcuate Delta
    The land around the river mouth arches out into the sea and the river splits many times on the way to the sea, creating a fan effect
  569. Biological Weathering
    Refers to the eating away of rocks by plants and animals
  570. Birds Foot Delta
    The river splits on the way to the sea, each part of the river juts out into the sea, rather like a birds foot
  571. Capacity
    The maximum amount that something can contain
  572. Blowhole
    A hole in the roof of a sea cave through which water and air can pass through
  573. Cell
    A distinct geographical area
  574. Compression of morbidity
    Is a term used to describe one of the goals of healthy ageing and longevity
  575. Concordant
    When there is only one rock type exposed so erosion rates and fairly consistant
  576. Congestion Charge
    A charge made to drive into an area, typically a city centre that suffers heavy traffic
  577. Cuspate Delta
    The land around the mouth of the river juts out arrow like into the sea
  578. Demographic Ageing
    Occurs when a relatively higher proportion of the population is made up of ageing or older people with implications for social spending on pensions, healthcare etc
  579. Dependent Population
    Those who rely on the working population for support, e.g. the young and the elderly
  580. Deposits
    Put or set down something in a place
  581. Differential Erosion
    Erosion that occurs at irregular or varying rates caused by the differences in the resistance and hardness of surface materials
  582. Dune Heath
    A treeless area of low heathlike vegetation found on sand dunes and sand plains
  583. Dune Slack
    Is the coastal area between each sand dune
  584. Dynamic
    Characterised by constant change, activity or process
  585. Embryo Dunes
    The first set of dunes to form a psammosere succession
  586. Entrenched Meander
    A deepended meander of a river which is carried downward furtherbelow the valley surface
  587. Equilibrium
    A condition in which all acting influences are cancelled by others, resulting in a stable balanced situation
  588. Fixed Dunes
    When the vegetation has developed so that it forms a more or less complete cover of the substrate, the dunes are said to be FIXED
  589. Return Period
    Also a recurrence interval. How often something happens again
  590. Foredune
    A part of a system of sand dunes on the side nearest to the sea
  591. Geo
    A long, narrow, steep sided cleft formed by erosion in coastal cliffs
  592. London Low Emission Zone
    Is a traffic charge scheme designed to help improve the health of the people in London by making sure only Low emission vehicles are allowed in a certain area unless a charge
  593. Hold the Line
    To keep the coastline where it is
  594. Infinite
  595. Ingrown Meander
    A meander of a stream with an undercut bank on one side and a gentle slope
  596. Interception Storage
    Storage of water above the ground surface
  597. Juvenility Index
    The index of finding the proportion of the youthful population within an area
  598. Land Drainage
    Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface from an area
  599. Lateral Erosion
    The wearing away of the side of the river
  600. Lithology
    The study of the characteristics of rocks
  601. Managed Retreat
    Managed retreat allows the coastline to slowly retreat backwards
  602. Meander Scar
    When a flooding river straightens its channel by eroding a cut off across the neck of a meander, it leaves behind an abandoned loop of former meander
  603. Mobile Dunes
    Upward growth of the embryo dunes allows the surface to be raised so it is out of reach of all but the highest storm tides
  604. Offshore breakwater
    A breakwater built towards the seaward limit of the littoral zone, parallel to the shore
  605. Old Age Index
    An index to show the elderly of the population within an area
  606. Population Pyramid
    How population structure is normally shown as
  607. Pounding
    Repeated and heavy striking or hitting of someone or something
  608. Dynamic Equilibrium
    A chemical reaction between a forward reaction and the reverse reaction where the rate of reactions are equal
  609. Pro-Natalist
    The belief of encouraging births with rewards, often financial
  610. Rising Limb
    Represents the rapid increase from rainfall
  611. Receding Limb
    Represents the gradual decrease resulting in infiltration or runoff of the water from the rain
  612. Recoverable Reserves
    Of the total oil in place only a proportion can be ultimately recovered
  613. Relict Cliff
    Are cliffs that used to be eroded but no longer are
  614. Retreat the line
    The act of withdrawing from a place or situation
  615. Road Tax
    A periodic tax payable on motor vehicles using public roads
  616. Rock fall
    An avalanche of loose rocks
  617. Slumping
    Is a form of mass wasting that take place when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short distance down a slope
  618. Soil Moisture Deficit
    Is the amount of water needed to bring the soil moisture content back to field capacity
  619. Soil moisture recharge
    After the summer when the moisture in the soil is all gone, is replenished after rainfall in the winter
  620. Soil Moisture Surplus
    When precipitation exceeds potential evapotranspiration
  621. Soil Moisture utilisation
    Its how soil uses the moisture supplied to it
  622. Soil Storage
    The water which is stored within the soil. Often short term
  623. Spatial Variations
    Changes in condition over an area
  624. Speculative Reserves
    Estimates of oil which have not been positively indentified but based on previous experience, is reasonable to expect is there
  625. Sub Cell
    A smaller cell within a cell
  626. Support Ratio
    The number of working age divided by dependents to find how many people support who
  627. Surface Storage
    Part of precipitation retained on ground surface
  628. Temporal Variations
    Variation throughout time
  629. Unimpeded fall
    Not slowed down
  630. Vertical Erosion
    Is when there is deepening of the stream bed through erosion
  631. Wave Quarrying
    The breaking waves that hit the rocks
  632. Working population
    The people who are employed or are of working age within an area
Card Set
Geography flashcards - keywords.txt