Chapter 6

  1. What is contrast media?
    • Substance injected into the circulatory system or a body cavity
    • Shows up x-rays
  2. What is radiopaque?
    Can be seen on an x-ray
  3. What is radiotransparent?
    Cannot be seen on an x-ray
  4. What are dyes?
    • Solutions that color or mark tissues for identification
    • Used for skin incisions, dileneate normal tissue planes
    • Applied topically, injected into the blood stream or a body cavity
  5. What are staining agents?
    • Chemicals that react differently to abnormal cells than normal cells.
    • Used often in cervix procedures
  6. What is omnipaque?
    • Iohexol - water-soluable iodine based radiographic contrast medium
    • 45% iodine
    • Contraindicated in patients with iodine hypersensitivities
  7. What strengths does omnipaque come in?
    • 140mg
    • 180mg
    • 210mg
    • 240mg
    • 300mg
    • 350mg
    • Comes in glass vials 10mL - 250mL
  8. What procedures is omnipaque commonly used for?
  9. What happens to omnipaque in the body?
    • Absorbed from site of administratin into the blood stream
    • Undergoes little or no metabolism
    • Excreted by the kidneys virutally unchanged
  10. What is hypaque?
    • Diatrizoate meglumine 30% and 60%, diatrizoate sodium 25% and 50%
    • Watersoluable radiopaque contrast media
    • Supplied in glass vials 50mL and 100mL
    • Can not be used in patients with iodine hypersensitivity
    • Cannot be used interthecally
  11. What procedures is hypaque used for?
    • Choloangiograms - open or laproscopic - to determine the presence of stones in the common bile duct
    • Can also be inserted directly into the bladder
  12. How is hypaque prepared on the sterile field?
    Often diluted with equal parts saline solution
  13. What is visipaque?
    • Iodixanol - water soluable radiopaque contrast media
    • Available in concentrations of 270 and 320mg of organically bound iodine per mL
    • Absorbed into the bloodstream, leaves kidneys nearly unchanged
  14. What is visipaque used for?
    • cardiography
    • peripheral, visceral and cerebral arteriography
    • computerized tomography
    • excretory urography
    • peripheral venography
  15. What is Isovue?
    • Iopamidol - water soluable media for intravascular, intrathecal and body cavity administration for radiographic procedeures
    • Rapidly absorbed into the blood stream and excreted by the kidneys
    • Comes in concentrations of 150, 200, 300 and 370mg/mL
  16. What is Isovue used for?
    • Lumbar and thoracocervical myelography
    • Cerebral angiography
  17. What are the 4 most common dyes used in surgery?
    • Methylene blue
    • Lymphazurin
    • Indigo carmine
    • Gentian violet
  18. What is methylene blue used for?
    • Cystoscopy - detect bladder injury
    • Tubal dye studies - verify patency of uterine tubes
    • Bladder surgery or exploration: Detect bladder injury
  19. What is Isosulfan Blue (Lymphazurin) used for?
    • Aqueous solution for the dilineatoin of lymphatic vessels
    • Supplied in 5mL single dose vials
    • Injected by surgeon before skin prep 5 minutes before first incision
  20. What is Indigo Carmine?
    • Blue dye given intravenously to color urine for verification of bladder integrity or kidney function.
    • 40mg/5mL in water.
    • Excreted by the kidneys
    • 5mL glass ampules
  21. What is gentian violet?
    • Purple dye most frequently used to mark incision lines
    • Comes in sterile marking pens
    • Also works as an antifungal - fights thrush and yeast infections
  22. What are staining agents?
    Help identify abnormal tissue for biopsy or excision
  23. What is Lugol's solution?
    • Strong iodine mixture used to perform Schiller's test on cervical tissue
    • Abnormal cells won't take up the dye, leaving them visibile to the eye.
  24. What is Acetic Acid?
    • Vinegar
    • Used to help identify areas of cervical dysplasia
    • May be used as a staining agent when laser is used to excise dysplasia
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Chapter 6
Chapter 6