1. Here are all of my note cards from my Sophmore Chemistry class. I hope that you will find these helpful, useful, and a good way to study!
  2. Boyle's Law
    (+ equation)
    The volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with pressure at constant temperature

    • PV=T
    • P1V1=P2V2
  3. Gay-Iussac's Law
    (+ equation)
    The pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature

    • P/T=K
    • P=KT
    • P1/T1=P2/T2
  4. Combined Gas Law
    (+ equation)
    The relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas

    • PV/T=K
    • P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
  5. Dalton's Law of Partical Pressures
    The total pressure of a mixutre of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
  6. Avogadro's Law
    Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
  7. Gay-Iussac's Law of Combining Volumes of Gases
    At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers
  8. Standard Molar Volume of a Gas
    e volume occupied by one mole of gas at STP,22.414 10 L
  9. Ideal Gas Law
    The mathematical relationship of pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas
  10. Ideal Gas Constant
    The constant R,0.082 057 94 L*atm/mol*K
  11. Graham's Law of Effusion
    The rates of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses
  12. Arrgenius Acid
    A chemical compound that increases the concentration of hudrogen ions, H+, in aqueous solution
  13. Arrhenius Base
    A substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH-, in aqueous solution
  14. Binary Acid
    An acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements
  15. Oxyacid
    And adic that is a coumpond of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually non-metal
  16. Strong Acids
    (list examples)
    An acid that ionizes completely in aquesous solution

    • Examples:
    • Perchloric acid, HCIO4, hydrochloric acid, HC1, nitric acid, HNO3
  17. Weak Acids
    An acid that is a weak electrolyte
  18. Strong Base
    (list examples)
    Strong electrolytes

    • Examples:
    • Potassium hydroxide (KOH), Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, NaOH, RbOH, CsOH
  19. Amphoteric
    Any species that can react as either an acid of a base
  20. Bronsted-lowry Acid
    (list examples)
    A molecule or ion that is a protein donor

    • Examples:
    • Hydrogen chloride
  21. Bronsted-lowry Acid-base Reaction
    The transfer of protons from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)
  22. Bronsted-lowry Base
    (list examples)
    A molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor

    • Examples:
    • Ammonia
  23. Lewis Acid
    (list examples)
    An atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond

    • Examples:
    • Boron trifluoride
  24. Lewis Base
    (list examples)
    An atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond

    • Examples:
    • Anion
  25. Lewis Acid-base Reaction
    The formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor
  26. Conjugate Acid
    The species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton
  27. Conjugate Base
    The species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton
  28. Neutralization
    The reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules
  29. Salt
    An ionic compound composed of a cation and the anion from an acid; an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
  30. Titration
    The controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration
  31. Properties of Acids
    • 1) Solutions have a sour taste
    • 2) Acids change the color of acid-based indicators
    • 3) Some acids react with active materials to release hydrogen gas
    • 4) Acids react with bases to produce salts and water
    • 5) Some acids conduct electric current
  32. Properties of Bases
    • 1) Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter
    • 2) Bases change the color of acid based indicators
    • 3) Dilure aqueous solutions of bases feel slippery
    • 4) Bases react with acids to produce salts and water
    • 5) Bases conduct electric current
  33. Transition Interval
    (Methyl Red, Bromthymol Blue, Methyl Orange, Bromthymol Blue, Phenolphtalein, Phenol Red)
    The pH range over which an indicator changes color
  34. Heat
    The energy transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in their temperature
  35. Temperature
    A measure of the avereage kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter
  36. Kinetic Energy
    The energy a body has by virtue of its motion
  37. Enthalphy Change
    The amount of energy absorbed or lost by a system during a process at constant pressure
  38. Thermochemistry
    The study of the changes in heat energy that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes
  39. Specific Heat
    The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one Celsius degree (1 oC) or one kelvin (1K)
  40. Entropy
    A measure of the degree of randomness of the particles, such as molecules, in a system
  41. Free Energy
    The combined enthalphentropy function of a system
  42. Activated Complex
    A transitional structire that results from an effective collision and that persists while old bonds are breaking and the new bonds are forming
  43. Activation Energy
    The minimum energy required to transform the reactants into an activated complex
  44. Collision Theory
    The set of assumptions explaining how chemical reactions take place and why rates of reaction alter
  45. Reaction Mechanism
    The step-by-step sequence of reactions by which the overall chemical change occurs
  46. Endothermic
    Referring to a chemical reaction that absorbs heat
  47. Exothermic
    Referring to a chemical reaction that releases heat
  48. Catalyst
    A substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being permanently consumed
  49. Reaction Rate
    The change in concentration of reactants per unit time as a reaction proceeds
  50. Rate-Influencing Factors
    • 1) Nature of reactants
    • 2) Surface area
    • 3) Temperature
    • 4) Concentration
    • 5) Presence of Catalysts
  51. Nuclear-Binding Energy
    The energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucelons
  52. Nucleon
    A proton or neutron
  53. Nuclide
    The general term for any isotope of any element, another term for an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
  54. Transmutation
    A change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons
  55. Nuclear Reaction
    A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom
  56. Alpha Particle
    Two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
  57. Beta Particle
    An electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
  58. Gamma Ray
    A high-energy electromagnetic wave emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited energy state to a ground energy state
  59. Half-life
    The time required for half of the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay
  60. Nuclear Radiation
    The particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay
  61. Positron
    A particle that has the same mass as an electron but has a positive charge and is emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
  62. Radioactive Decay
    The spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter and more stable nucleus, accompanied by emission of particles and/or electromagnetic radiation
  63. REM
    The quantity of ionizing radiation that does as much damage to human tissues as is done by 1 roentgen of high voltage X rays
  64. Roentgen
    A unit used to measure nuclear radiation; equal to the amount of radiation that produces 2 x 109 ion pairs when it masses through 1 cm3 of dry air
  65. Radioactive Tracers
    A radioactive atom that is incorporated into a substance so that movement of the substance can be followed by a radiation detector
  66. Radioactive Dating
    The process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present
  67. Nuclear Fission
    A process in which a very heavy nucleus splits into more-stable nuclei of intermediate mass
  68. Nuclear Fusion
    The combining of light-mass nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus
  69. Moderator
    A material used to slow down the fast neutrons produced by fission
  70. Daughter Nuclide
    A nuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide
  71. Parent Nuclide
    The heaviest nuclide of each decay series
  72. Charles' Law
    (+ equation)
    The volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelving temperature K=273.15+ oC

    • V=KT
    • V/T=K
    • V1/T1=V2/T2
  73. Absolute Zero
    The temperature -273.15o C, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale
  74. Pressure
    The forces per unit area on a surface
  75. Standard Temperature and Pressure
    The agreed-upon standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0o C
  76. Kinetic-molecular Theory
    A theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
  77. Ideal Gas
    An imaginary gas that perfectly fits all of the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
  78. Diffusion
    Spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion
  79. Effusion
    A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
  80. Limiting Reactant
    The reactant that limits the amounts of the other reactants that can combine - and the amount of product that can form - in a chemical reaction
  81. Theoretical Yield
    The maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant
  82. Mole Ratio
    A conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction
  83. Percent Yield
    (+ equation)
    The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100

    Percent Yield = (actual yield/theoretical yield)*100
  84. Composition Stoichiometry
    Calculations involving the mass relationships of elements in compounds
  85. Reaction Stoichiometry
    Calculations involving the mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
  86. There you go!
    Hope anyone who uses these finds that they are useful!
    Have fun in Chemistry!
Card Set
A crap load of Chemistry note cards to help you review for a test, final, or just for fun. 84 cards in total!