What is the definition of communication?
refers to the process of human beings responding to the symbolic behavior of other persons.
5 Types of Communications.
- Intrapersonal communication.
- Dyadic/Interpersonal Communication.
- Small Group Communication.
- Public Communication.
- Mass Communication.
Functions of Communication.
- Physical needs.
- Indentity needs.
- Social needs.
- Practical needs.
Characteristics of competent communicators.
- A wide range of behaviors.
- Ability to choose the most appropriate behavior.
- Skills at performing behaviors.
- Empathy/Perspective taking.
- Cognitive Complexity.
- Commitment to the relationship.
- is a set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us holds about ourselves.
- is our perception of ourselves, i is unique it makes us similar to others and different from others.
- Introduced in 1902 by Charles H. Cooley.
- suggested that we put ourselves in the position of other people and then, in our mind's eye, view ourselves as we imagine they see us.
- Occurs when a person's expectations of an outcome makes the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been true.
- Type 1:occurs when your own expectations influence your behavior.
- Type 2:occurs when the expectations o on person govern another's actions.
- Labeling people according to our first impressions is an inevitable part of the perception process.
- Labels are a way of making interpretations.
We are influenced by the most obvious.
- There are three factors that cause us to notice some messages and ignore others.
- Intense (loud music).
- Reptitious (dripping faucet).
- Contrastive (normally happy is grumpy).
Situational factors in relation to perception.
- Relational Satisfaction.
- Degree of Involvement with the other person.
- Past experience.
- Social Roles.
- Self Concept.
Is the ability to re-create another person's perspective, to experience the world form the other's point of view.
Challenges to listening.
- Pseudo listening - faking it.
- Selective listening - only parts you want to hear.
- Defensive listening - someone to attack.
- Ambushing - listening to info to attack.
- Insulating listening - ignoring what said/not agreeing.
- Stage hogging - listening to take attention back to yourself.
Reasons for poor listening.
- not concetrating.
- listening too hard - writing down everyting instead of main points.
- jumping to conclusions.
- focusing on delivery and personal appearance.
Types of listening.
- Appreciative listening - music, comedy.
- Comprehensive listening - to understand.
- Evaluative listening - listen to make a judgement.
- Empathetic listening - putting self in someone's shoes.
Characteristics of nonverbal communication.
- NC exists - ideas on how others feel w/o words.
- N Behavior has communicative value - unintentional & intentional.
- NC is Primarily Relational - serve utilitarian functions, identity management, convey emotions.
- NC is Ambiguous - difficult to interpret.
- NC is different from Verbal Communication -often unintended & unconscious.
- N skills are Important - impossible to study spoken w/o paying attention to nonverbal.
Unintentional non-verbal behaviors.
Influences on nonverbal communication.
Six types of expressions used universally.
Functions of nonverbal communication (NC).
- repeating emblems deliberate nonverbal behaviors.
- substituting.- emblems replace verbal message.
- complementing - voice & nc say same thing.
- accenting pointing finger in emphasis.
- regulating - pause in speech indicate others turn to speak.
- contradicting - angry but saying not .
- deceiving - not al is self-serving or malicious; white lie.
Types of nonverbal communication (nc)
- Kinesics - use of manipulators (body movements).
- Face & Eyes - affect blends (blending of manipulators)
- Vocalics - tone, pitch, rate (paralanguage).
- Tactile - communicating through touch need for our health.
- physical attractiveness -
- Clothing - economic status
Linear communication model what are the three types of "noise" mean?
- external - make it hard to hear.
- physiological - illness, fatigue.
- psycological - unwilling to accept truth (failed test).
Linear Communication model - environment
- physical location.
- persons experience.
- cultural background.
Johari window defined?
a model developed by luft & Harrington Ingman to help understand the relationship between the various ideas we present about ourselves.
Language is symbolic.
- Symbols - arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator thoughts.
- Meanings are in people not words.
Language is symbolic - Phonological rules.
- govern how words sound when pronounced.
- he could lead if he would get the lead out.
Language is symbolic - Syntactic rules.
- govern the structure of language - the way symbols can be arranged.
- Have you the cookies brought?
Language is symbolic - Semantic rules.
- deal with the meaning of specific words. misunderstandings occur when words can e interpreded in more than one way.
- panda mating fails; veterinarian takes over.
Language is symbolic - Pragmatic rules.
- govern how people use language in everyday interactions.
- self concept.
- episode in which the comment occurs.
- perceivd relationship.
- cultural background.
- best known declaration of linguistic determinism.
- reflects worldview more like a motion picture.
Content and relational messages - Content messages.
which focus on the subject being discussed are the most obvious.
Content & relational messages - Relational messages.
which make statements about how the parties feel toward one another.
Content and relational messages - affinity
the degree to which people like or appreciate one another.
Content and relational messages - Respect.
is the degree to which we admire others and hold them in esteem.
Content and relational messages - Immediacy.
describe the degree of interest and attraction we feel toward and communicate to others.
Content and relational messages - Control
the amount of influence communicators seek.
levels of intimacy in interpersonal communication
- Physical (kissing, touching, hugging).
- Intellectual Intimacy.
- Emotional Disclosure.
Knapp's developmental model.
- Coming together = initiating, experimenting, intensifiying, integrating, bonding->.
- Comming appart = Differentiating, circumscribing, stagnating, avoiding, terminating <-.
Knapps model - relational maintenance.
integrating bonding differentiating circumscribing.
- the process of deliberately reveling info about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known to others.
- revelations (understanding yourself;talking it out)
Social penetration theory.
- first dimension of self disclosure in this model involves the breadth of information volunteered.
- second dimension of self disclosure in this model involves the depth of information volunteered.
Benefits of Disclosure.
- better self understanding.
- sharing of concerns.
- slef revelation.
- relationship nurturance.
Risks of self disclosure.
- vulnerability - exploited.
- overexposure - too much too soon.
Improving interpersonal relationships - Confirming messages,
- positive climates.
Improving interpersonal relationsips - Disconfirming messages - negative climate.
- degrading (respect).
- Humoring (condescending).
- Shorten interaction w/them.
Communication climate developed.
- confirming = climate positive one
- Disconfirming = climate hostile one.
Communicaiton climates developed - self-perpetuating spiral
reciprocating communication pattern in which persons message reinforces others.
Communication climate develop - Escalatory conflict spirls
are most visible way that disconfirming messages reinforce one another. (fighting)
Communication climates develop - Deescalatory conflict spirals.
can also be destructive - rather than fighting the parties slowly lessen their dependence on one another, withdrwa and become less invested in the relationship.
What is a group?
a small collection of people when interact with each other usually face to face overtime in orde to reach goals. 2-20people. Interdependant on each other.
Goals of groups and their memebers?
- Individual goals.
- Group Goals.
- Task orientation - getting the job done.
- Social orientation - seeking sence of belonging.
- to win.
- Hidden agenda - individual goal
Types of Groups.
- Learning groups.
- problem-solving groups.
- Social groups.
- Growth groups.
decision making methods.
- consensus - everyone agrees.
- Majority Control - quicker, majority might not be best.
- Expert opinion - give up control to expert, quick, not necessarly best.
- Minority control - committees to control, curriculum committee.
- Authority rule - superfast, unhappy people.
Individualistic vs collective
- Individual vs collective.
- yourself vs team player.
- rewards for bing about ourselves vs share responsiblity & admits mistaks.
- capalistic vs dictator.
- europe/us/canada/alstralia vs lain america/asia.
advantages of group problem solving.
developmental stages in problem solving.
- orientation stage.
- conflict stage.
- emergence stage.
- reinforcement stage.
overcoming obstacles of group discussion
- information - underload/overload.
- Unequal participatoin.
- pressure to conform.
- characteristics - highly cohesive.
- symptoms - illusion of vulnerability.
- Defective decision - making incomplete survey of hte alternatives.
responsibilities in a small group.
- be committed to the group goal.
- fufill individual assignment.
- avoid interpersonal conflicts.
- encourage full participation.
- keep the discussion on track.