1. ´╗┐How do vaccines cause immunity?
    They provide memory B cells
  2. What is the difference between a memory B cell and a plasma B cell?
    Memory B cell makes more of the same cell, plasma B cell makes antibodies
  3. What is the primary function of lymph nodes?
    To clean lymph of pathogens before it reaches the bloodstream
  4. What is the difference between active immunity and passive immunity?
    Active immunity is building and developing your own antibodies, passive immunity is receiving antibodies
  5. How does B cell activation differ from T cell activation?
    B cells are activated by contact; T cells require B cells and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) to be activated
  6. What is the largest of the lymphatic organs?
  7. A disease causing agent is known as what?
  8. Mechanisms that are general in nature to protect against pathogens?
    Non-specific Defense Mechanisms
  9. What type of mechanisms target specific pathogens?
    Specific Defense Mechanisms
  10. Skin, hair, and mucous membranes are what kind of barriers?
  11. How does interferon work?
    It causes surrounding cells to make anti-viral proteins
  12. Describe the signs of inflammatory response.
    Redness, pain, heat, swelling
  13. What is the primary chemical that causes an inflammatory response?
  14. Resistance to pathogens is known as what?
  15. What is an antigen?
    Anything that elicits an immune response
  16. What is an allergen?
    Anything that elicits an allergic reaction
  17. Which branch of the immune system uses cell-mediated immunity?
    T-cell branch (because it uses perforin) which uses contact
  18. How does a humoral-mediated immunity system work?
    Antibodies flow to the humorous
  19. What are the functions of cytokines?
    To enhance cellular response to antigens
  20. T-cell activation requires an antigen to be presented, thru the use of what?
    Antigen Presenting Cell (APC)
  21. An antibody molecule has 2 parts: the constant region, and the variable region; these are known as what?
    Antigen Binding Sites
  22. What is the difference between a primary immune response and a secondary immune response?
    Primary is when a person is first exposed to an antigen; secondary is when B cells produce memory cells
  23. Percentage of red blood cells by volume is known as what?
  24. The remaining 55% of blood that is the clear, liquid portion is known as what?
  25. What type of white blood cell will be elevated by a bacterial infection?
  26. What type of white blood cell will be elevated by a parasitic worm infestation?
  27. Anemia caused by deficiency of hemoglobin is known as what?
    Iron Deficiency Anemia
  28. This clotting mechanism is initiated by clotting factors within the blood.
    Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism
  29. What are the 3 hemostatic mechanisms?
    1) Vasospasm 2) Platelet Plug Formation 3) Blood Coagulation
  30. A major event in blood coagulation (blood clot formation) is the conversion of soluble _____ into insoluble _____.
    Fibrinogen; Fibrin
  31. Deficiency of red blood cells, or the oxygen-carrying capacity of them is known as what?
  32. This blood type is the universal donor because it lacks antigens A and B.
    Type O
  33. Leukocytes with a granular cytoplasm are known as what?
  34. What are the two types of agranulocytes?
    1) Monocytes 2) Lymphocytes
  35. A blood clot abnormally forming in vessels is known as what?
  36. If there is more prostacyclin than thromboxane, there will be _____ clotting.
  37. If there is more thromboxane than prostacyclin, there will be _____ clotting.
  38. How does aspirin decrease risk of heart attacks?
    It provides more prostacyclin, decreasing clotting
  39. List the 4 types of hypersensitivities.
    1) Anaphylactic Shock 2) Antibody-Dependent Cytotoxic Reactions 3) Immune Complex Reactions 4) Delayed-Reaction Hypersensitivity
  40. List and describe (in order) the colors involved in bruising.
    1) Black and Blue (venous blood) 2) Green (biliverdin) 3) Orange (bilirubin)
  41. What is the primary cell involved in an allergic reaction?
    Mast Cell
  42. What is the carbonic acid dissociation formula?
    CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-
Card Set
Chapters 14 and 16 Review