Introduction to Locomotor Anatomy

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  1. What is the function of the locomotor system?
    To allow the animal to move its body for a variety of reasons e.g. finding and eating food, running from danger, grooming, etc
  2. How can the skeleton be divided?
    Into the axial and appendicular skeleton
  3. What is included in the a) axial b) appendicular skeleton?
    • a) Skull and vertebral column
    • b) Forelimb and hindlimb
  4. Define the following terms a) protraction b) retraction c) adduction d) abduction e) flexion f) extension?
    • a) Movement of the limb cranially relative to the trunk
    • b) Movement of the limb caudally relative to the trunk
    • c) Movement of the limb medially relative to the trunk
    • d) Movement of the limb laterally relative to the trunk
    • e) Folding/shortening of the limb
    • f) Stretching/lengthening of the limb
  5. Describe the sequence of events that occurs during locomotion to create forward propulsion of the animal
    • Folding of the limb = flexion
    • Moving the limb forwards = protraction
    • Stretching the limb = extension
    • Moving the limb backwards or fixing the limb and move the trunk forwards relative to the limb = retraction
  6. Describe the differences in contribution from the axial skeleton/trunk in different species
    Horses have a relatively rigid vertebral column so most of the propulsion/stride length results from limb movement.  Cats have a flexible vertebral column which acts like a bow to increase propulsion/stride length from limbs
  7. How do the following components contribute to the locomotor system? a) bones b) joints c) ligaments d) muscles e) tendons f) nerve supply g) blood supply
    • a) Act as rigid props within the limb
    • b) Allow movement between bones
    • c) Hold bones together 
    • d) Produces movement between bones across joints
    • e) Attach muscles to bone across joints
    • f) Control of movement
    • g) Metabolic support
  8. What are the different types of bone?  And what are their functions?
    • Long - support and leverage in limbs
    • Flat - large surface area for attachment and protection of underlying structures
    • Short - large range of movement between bones, anti-concussive/shock absorbing 
    • Sesamoid - redirect forces where there is a change in angle, reduces friction so prevents damage
    • Irregular - unique
  9. What are bony bumps called?
  10. What are smooth areas (articular surfaces) on the surface of bones covered by?
    Hyaline cartilage
  11. Define these physical features that are visible in long bones on radiographs
    • Diaphysis = shaft
    • Cortex = wall
    • Medullary cavity = hollow centre
    • Epiphysis = proximal or distal end (articular surfaces located here)
    • Metaphysis = transition zone between epiphysis and diaphysis
  12. Where does growth of bones occur?
    At the physics/growth plate
  13. List some of the palpable features of the scapula
    • Dorsal border
    • Cranial border
    • Scapular spine
    • Acromion process
  14. What does the scapular spine divide the scapular into?
    The suprascapular fossa and infrascapular fossa
  15. Why is the caudal border of the scapula not palpable?
    As it is beneath muscle
  16. What can the acromion process be used to locate?
    The shoulder joint
  17. What part of the scapula articulates with the humerus to make the shoulder joint?
    The glenoid cavity
  18. What part of the scapula provides an area of attachment for the biceps brachii muscle?
    Supraglenoid tubercle
  19. How many centres of ossification does the scapula develop from?
  20. What process is present in cats just proximal to the acromion process?
    Suprahemate process
  21. What is present on the scapular spine of larger species?
    A tuber
  22. True or false: domestic species have a clavicle?
  23. How are the forelimbs held onto the trunk in domestic species?  What is the advantage of this?
    They are held onto the trunk by muscular attachments alone.  This allows the scapular to rotate along the side of the trunk (scapular glide).  This results in a large range of crania-caudal movement of the forelimb relative to the trunk which in turn increases stride length when running.
  24. Which muscle forms a sling that suspends the weight of the trunk between the forelimbs?
    Serratus ventralis
  25. What are tendons and why are they advantageous?
    Tendons are condensation of fibrous tissue into chords.  They are less bulky across joints, and only need small areas of attachments.
  26. What is the term for two muscles which have opposing actions?
    Antagonistic pair
  27. List the extrinsic muscles of the forelimb
    • Brachiocephalicus
    • Latissimus dorsi
    • Serratus ventralis
    • Trapezius 
    • Pectorals
  28. What is the origin and insertion of Brachiocephalicus?
    • O = cervical vertebrae and skull
    • I = humerus
  29. What is the function of Brachiocephalicus?
    Forelimb protractor
  30. What is the origin and insertion of Latissimus dorsi?
    • O = thoracic vertebrae
    • I = humerus
  31. What is the function of Latissimus dorsi?
    Forelimb retractor
  32. What is the origin and insertion of Serratus ventralis?
    • O = thoracic wall (ribs) and cervical vertebrae
    • I = Proximal scapula
  33. Where is Serratus ventralis located?
    Between the forelimb and trunk (scapula and thoracic wall)
  34. What is the function of Serratis ventralis?
    • Support the weight of the trunk between the forelimbs
    • Cranial portion - forelimb retractor
    • Caudal portion - forelimb protractor
  35. What is the origin and insertion of Trapezius?
    • O = cervical and thoracic vertebrae
    • I = proximal scapular spine
  36. What is the function of Trapezius?
    Forelimb abductor
  37. What is the origin and insertion of Pectorals?
    • O = sternum
    • I = humerus
  38. What is the function of Pectorals?
    Forelimb adduction
  39. Which extrinsic forelimb muscles are antagonistic pairs?
    • Brachiocephalic and Latissimus dorsi
    • Trapezius and Pectorals
Card Set
Introduction to Locomotor Anatomy
Vet Med - Module 7
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