1. ________, the general term for the primary reproductive organs, are responsible for the secretion of _________ in females.
    gonads; estrogens (estradiol) and progesterone
  2. The sperm are produced within the _________ of the testes.
    seminiferous tubules
  3. Which of the following is NOT a function of Sertoli cells?

    E) secrete androgens
  4. What is the function of Leydig cells?
    secrete androgens
  5. The ____________ erectile tissue increase during sexual arousal, causing the penis to become erect.
    volume of blood within the
  6. What is the function of the scrotum?
    keep the temperature of the testes less than body temperature for normal sperm development
  7. What transports sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct?
    vas deferens
  8. What secretes an alkaline fluid containing fructose, enzymes, and prostaglandins into the ejaculatory duct?
    seminal vesicle
  9. What secretes several enzymes and citrate into the urethra during ejaculation?
    prostate gland
  10. The secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for ____________ in males.
    secretion of androgens from the Leydig cells
  11. Inhibin is secreted from the ________ and acts to reduce the secretion of __________.
    Sertoli cells; FSH
  12. Spermatogenesis is directly stimulated by _________.
    both FSH & testosterone
  13. Which of the following is NOT stimulated by the surge of testosterone that occurs at puberty?

    C)  the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  14. How do males continue to produce sperm through their adult lives?
    When a spermatogonium undergoes mitosis, only one undergoes further differentiation to become a mature sperm; the other stays a spermatogonium
  15. During spermatogenesis, the _________ are haploid cells that require further differentiation to become functional spermatozoa.
  16. Most of the uterine wall thickness is composed of the _________.
  17. Fertilization usually occurs in the _________.
    uterine (fallopian) tube
  18. Each oocyte remains under meiotic arrest until just before _________.
  19. During the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, one follicle (the dominant follicle) will continue to develop because its cells __________.
    maintain estrogen secretion
  20. What hormone(s) stimulate(s) follicle growth?
    both FSH and estrogens
  21. The surge in plasma luteinizing hormone that occurs at the beginning of the luteal phase is responsible for _________.
    both ovulation and development of the corpus luteum
  22. The changes in the uterus that occur during the secretory phase of the uterine cycle are mediated by ________.
    increased progesterone from the corpus luteum
  23. In the absence of the implantation of a fertilized embryo, the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is initiated by the degeneration of the ________.
    corpus luteum
  24. The hormonal trigger for menstruation involves a _________.
    loss of progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum
  25. The elevated plasma concentration of estrogen early in the luteal phase has little effect on the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) because ___________.
    progesterone strongly inhibits LH release
  26. Which of the following conditions is NOT induced by the reduction in estrogen release that occurs during menopause?

    C) absence of sexual arousal
  27. Monozygotic twins develop as a consequence of _________.
    splitting of the morula while cells are still totipotent
  28. The secretion of estrogen and progesterone by the corpus luteum is maintained during pregnancy by ________ until it degenerates and the __________ takes over secretion of these hormones.
    human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); placenta
  29. The activity of smooth muscle cells of the myometrium is regulated by estrogen, which can act to increase responsiveness to __________.
  30. The _________ in secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during pregnancy is regulated primarily by _________.
    decrease; progesterone
  31. What is/are the function(s) of oxytocin?
    • stimulate uterine contractions
    • stimulate the release of prostaglandins from myometrial cells
    • stimulate breast myoepithelial cell contractions
  32. Fetal release of _________ appears to be partly responsible for stimulating parturition.
    corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
  33. What nutrient is NOT found in breast milk after the first week?
  34. Which of the following statements about the male reproductive tract is true?

    B) The urethra serves as a passageway for both urine and sperm.
  35. Trace the path of a sperm cell from the testes to the outside world.

    HINT: Put these in order-

    vas deferens
    seminiferous tubules
    ejaculatory duct
    seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
  36. The seminal vesicles secrete _________.
  37. Oocyte development is similar to spermatogenesis in what way?
    Granulosa cells act along with FSH to promote oocyte development
  38. Which of the following are associated with events after ovulation?

    A) corpus luteum
  39. Estrogens _________.
    • induce the expression of LH receptors on granulose cells
    • inhibit GnRH secretion during the early- to mid-follicular phase
    • increase LH and FSH release during the late follicular phase
  40. Progesterone __________.
    is secreted by the corpus luteum
Card Set
CARLA set #18 for BIO 377 at UMaine (Fall 2014). This set pertains to Exam 4 (part of the final exam).