sociology final exam nick made these

  1. affirmative action
    program designed to seek out members of minority groups for positions from which they had previously been excluded thereby seeking to overcome institutional racism.
  2. colorism-
    skin color prejudice within an ethnoracial group most notably between light skinned and dark skinned blacks
  3. discrimination
    unfair treatment of people based on some social characteristic such as race, ethnicity, or sex
  4. ethnicity-
    sense of community derived from the cultural heritage shared by a  category of people with common ancestry
  5. institutional racism-
    laws,customs, and practices that systematically affect and produce racial and ethnic inequalities in a society whether or not the individuals maintaining these laws,customs, and practices have racist intentions
  6. panethnic racism
    general term applied to diverse subgroups that are assumed to have something in common
  7. personal racism
    individual expression of racist attitudes or behaviors
  8. prejudice
    rigidly unfavorable attitudes beliefs and feelings about members of a different group  based on a social characteristic such as race,ethnicity,or gender
  9. quiet racism
    form of racism expressed subtly and indirectly through feelings of discomfort uneasiness and fear that motivate avoidance rather than blatant discrimination
  10. race
    category of people labeled and treated as similar because of allegedly common biological traits such as skin color texture of hair and shapes of eyes
  11. racial transparency
    tendency for the race of a society's majority to be so obvious normative and unremarkable that it becomes for all intents and purposes invisible
  12. racism-
    belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that be ranked as superior or inferior
  13. stereotype-
    overgeneralized belief that a certain trait behavior or attitude characterizes all members of some identifiable group
  14. tracking-
    grouping of students into different curricular programs or tracks based on an assessment of their academic abilities
  15. institutional sexism
    subordination of women that is part of the everyday workings of economics law,politics, and other social institutions
  16. matriarchy
    female dominated society that give higher prestige and value to women than to men
  17. objectification-
    practice of treating people as objects
  18. patriarchy
    male dominated society in which cultural beliefs and value to men than to women
  19. pay equity
    principle that women and men who perform jobs that are of equal value to society and that require equal training ought to be paid equally
  20. sexism-
    system of beliefs that asserts the inferiority of one sex and justify gender based inequality
  21. age structure-
    populations balance of old and young people
  22. birth cohort-
    set of people who were born during the same era and who face similar societal circumstances brought about by their shared position in the overall age structure of the population
  23. cohort effect
    phenomenon in which members of a birth cohort tend to experience a particular life course event or rite of sage-puberty,marriage, childbearing, graduation, entry into the workforce, death,- at roughly the same time
  24. demographer-
    sociologist who studies trends in population characteristics
  25. migration-
    movement of populations from one geographic area to another
  26. period effect-
    phenomenon in which a historical event or major social trend contributes to the unique shape and outlook of a birth cohort
  27. urbanization
    process by which people leave rural areas and begin to concentrate in large cities
  28. anomie
    condition in which rapid change has disrupted society's ability to adequately regulate and control its members and the old rules that governed peoples lives no longer seem to apply
  29. counter movement
    collective action designed to prevent or reverse changes sought or accomplished by an earlier social movement
  30. cultural diffusion
    process by which beliefs technology customs and other elements of culture spread from one group or society to another
  31. global climate change-
    steady rise in earth's average temperature as a result of increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  32. ideology-
    coherent system of beliefs, values and ideas
  33. postindustrial society
    society in which knowledge the control of information and service industries are more important elements of the economy than agriculture or manufacturing and production
  34. reform movement
    collective action that seeks to change limited aspects of a society but does not seek to alter or replace major social institutions
  35. revolutionary movement-
    collective action that attempts to overthrow an entire social system and replace it with another
  36. social movement-
    continuous, large scale organized collection action motivated by the desire to enact stop or reverse change in some area of society
Card Set
sociology final exam nick made these