soc 100 ch 20

  1. the study of the size, composition, growth, and distribution of human populations
  2. an observation by Thomas Malthus that although the food supply increases arithmetically (from 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 and so on), population grows geometrically (from 2 to 4 to 8 to 16 and so forth)
    Malthus theorem
  3. a pattern of growth in which numbers double during approximately equal intervals, thus accelerating in the latter stages
    exponential growth curve
  4. a three-stage historical process of population growth; first, high birth rates and high birth rates and low death rates; and third, low birth rates and low death rates; and fourth stage has begun to appear in the Most Industrialized Nations
    demographic transistion
  5. the process by which a country's population becomes smaller because its birth rate and immigration are too low to replace those who die and emigrate
    population shrinkage
  6. a graphic representation of population, divided into age and sex
    population pyramid
  7. the three factors that influence population growth: fertility, mortality, and net migration
    demographic variables
  8. the number of children that the average woman bears
    fertility rate
  9. the number of children that women are capable of bearing
  10. the annual number of live births per 1,000 population
    crude birth rate
  11. the annual number of deaths per 1,000 population
    crude death rate
  12. the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 population
    net migration rate
  13. the net change in population after adding births, subtracting deaths, and either adding or subtracting net migration
    growth rate
  14. growth rate equals births minus deaths plus net migration
    basic demographic eqaution
  15. a demographic condition in which women bear only enough children to reproduce the population
    zero population growth
  16. a place in which a larger number of people are permanently based and do not produce their own food
  17. the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities have growing influence on the culture
  18. a central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs
  19. an urban area consisting of at least two metropolises and their many suburbs
  20. a city of 10 million or more residents
  21. a central city and the urbanized counties adjacent to it
    metropolitan statistical area
  22. a large clustering of service facilities and residential areas near highway intersections that provides a sense of place to people who live, shop, and work there
    edge city
  23. middle class people moving into a rundown area of a city, displacing the poor as they buy and restore homes
  24. a community adjacent to a city
  25. Robert Park's term for the relationship between people and their environment; also known as urban ecology
    human ecology
  26. the process by which a group of people displaces a group whose racial-ethnic or social class characteristics differ from their own
    invasion-succession cycle
  27. wearing an ipod to avoid contact
    norm of noninvolvement
  28. the more bystanders there are, the less likely people are to help
    diffusion of responsibility
  29. the rehabilitation of a rundown area, which usually results in the displacement of the poor who are living in that area
    urban renewal
  30. the use of economic incentives in a designated area to enourage invetsment
    enterprise zone
  31. the officers of a financial institution deciding not to make loans in a particular area
  32. the withdrawal of inverstments by financial institutions, which seals the fate of an urban area
  33. industries moving out of a country or region
Card Set
soc 100 ch 20
population and urbanization