1. Spontaneous Mutation
    Changes in the nucleotide sequence of genes that appear to have no known causes
  2. Induced mutations
    Mutations that result from the influence of extraneous factors
  3. Mutation rate
    The likelihood that a gene will undergo a mutation in a single generation
  4. Mutation hot spots
    DNA sequences that appear to be highly susceptible to mutation
  5. Somatic Mutations
    Mutations occurring in any cell in the body except germ cells
  6. Autosomal mutations
    Mutations within genes located on the autosomes
  7. X and Y linked mutations
    Mutations in genes located on the X or Y chromosome
  8. Point mutation or Base substitution
    A change of one base pair to another in a DNA molecule
  9. Missense Mutation
    When a change of one nucleotide of a triplet within a protein coding portion of a gene results in the creation of a new triplet codon that codes for a different amino acid
  10. Nonsense Mutation
    When a triplet codon is changed into a stop codon, resulting in the termination of translation of the protein
  11. Silent mutation
    When a point mutation alters a codon but does not result in a change in the amino acid
  12. Transition
    • When a pyrimidine replaces a pyrimidine
    • or 
    • When a purine replaces a purine
  13. Tranversion
    • When a pyrimidine replaces a purine
    • or 
    • When a purine replaces a pyrimidine
  14. Purines
    Adenine & Guanine
  15. Pyrimidines
    • Cytosine 
    • Thymine
    • Uracil
  16. Frameshift mutation
    The addition or deletion of any base causes all of the triplets downstream to be off or changed
  17. Null mutations
    A loss-of-function mutation that results in complete loss of function
  18. Gametic mutations
    Mutations that happen in the germ-line and can be passed on
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